Imperialism/World War One/Russian Revolution Review Using your textbook and the assignments you have completed in this unit, complete the following review. You will need to define or discuss in detail any information regarding each topic. HAND WRITE your answers on a SEPARATE sheet of paper. Be able to analyze excerpts and political cartoons. 1. Imperialism: Stronger nations dominate and control the political, economic, and cultural life of another country. 2. Sepoy Mutiny: Indian Soldiers (that were put in charge and trained by the British military) rebelled against British culture and laws. Britain put down the rebellion and took control of India, Queen Victoria takes the title Empress of India. 3. “New Imperialism”: 1800s-early 1900s, European nation took natural resources from Africa and Asia to boost their industrialization in their own country. 4. “Scramble for Africa”: European countries raced to claim as much land from each other in order to maximize their access to new raw materials and people. 5. Suez Canal: Shortened route from Europe to Asia and the rest of the world by months. Increased commerce and trade as well as allow the British Navy to dominate the world. 6. Berlin Conference: European countries met to divide up and map Africa without causing a war. 7. Opium Wars: British sold Opium to Chinese for tea. Chinese government angry about addictions. 8. “Spheres of Influence”: Strong country claims exclusive ties or control of a country or region. 9. Open Door Policy: United States kept trade available for all countries in China. 10. Boxer Rebellion: Chinese pushed out Christian missionaries, other westerners, and British soldiers. Wanted their culture back, and disliked the western influence. 11. “Informal” Imperialism: European powers often dominated an area’s economy, but does not establish direct rule. 12. Panama Canal: France began work on the canal in 1881, but had to stop because of engineering problems and high mortality due to disease. The United States took over the project in 1904, and took a decade to complete the canal, which was officially opened on August 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut greatly reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, 13. Spanish American War: was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of US intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. 14. Matthew Perry: US commodore sent to Japan in effort to create new markets and establish ports where ships to China could stop to obtain supplies. 15. Theodore Roosevelt: US president that protected the rebels in Panama in efforts to build a canal that connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 16. White Man’s Burden: The duty of Europeans to spread their culture to areas of Africa and Asia, Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem describing such hardships in Africa. 17. Nationalism: is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation 18. Militarism: is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests 19. Alliance System: Led to great powers to sign treaties pledging to defend one another, it intended to create powerful combinations that no one dare attack. Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed in 1882; Triple Entente – France, Russia, and Great Britain formed in 1904. This increased international tension and eventually leading to war. 20. Archduke Franz Ferdinand: On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip 21. Machine Guns/Poison Gas/Airplanes : New military technology impacted the war by increasing the death rates in battle. The machine gun helped create a stalemate by making it difficult to advance across “no mans land” on the Western front. 22. Trench Warfare: On the Western Front, each army dug a system of trenches that stretched from the English Channel to the Swiss frontier. The area between the trenches will become know as “No Mans Land” 23. Zimmerman Telegram: Arthur Zimmer, German foreign minister sent the German ambassador in Mexico a note asking for Mexican support and in return Germany would help Mexico reclaim lost territory from the United States. 24. Woodrow Wilson: United States president during World War I. Attended the Paris Peace conference as the US representative. 25. David Lloyd George: British Prime Minister, knew his people demanded harsh treatment for Germany. Attended the Paris Peace Conference as the British representative. 26. Georges Clemenceau: French leader, wanted to weaken Germany to the point it could never attack France again. Attended the Paris Peace Conference as French representative. 27. Propaganda: The spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. 28. Treaty of Versailles: June, 1919 Germany was forced to sign treaty that stated they must accept full blame for causing the war, along with imposing huge war reparations (paying for the war), and finally weakening Germany in hope they will never be able to attack another nation. 29. Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Wilson’s plan for Germany after the war, he wanted his fourteen points to be the basis of the peace. 30. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare: Germany would torpedo merchant and passenger vessels at will due to they believed it was carrying supplies to Britain and its allies. May 1915 Germany sank the USS Lusitania which killed 128 Americans, soon after they promised they would restrict their submarine warfare, but by 1916 they were back at it. 31. League of Nations: Established during the Paris Peace Conference, it was an organization created to ensure peace. The United State and Russia never join the league. 32. Armenian Massacres: Over a million Armenian Christians (men, women, and children) living in the Ottoman Empire were gathered up and were executed by hanging or firing squads, because the Ottomans feared they would be sympathetic to Russia Christians. 33. Tsar Nicholas II- Monarch of Russia, will eventually be over thrown and executed due to his actions in World War One. 34. Russian Revolution: Russia was poorly prepared for the strains of war, and the monarchy was over thrown then provisional governments was set up but continue to make poor decision on war matters. Lenin and his Bolsheviks would eventually take over and set a communist government in Russia. 35. V. I Lenin: a follower of Karl Marx was exiled to Switzerland, but with the assistance of Germany was able to return to Russia causing internal conflict. Lenin died in 1924. 36. February Revolution: Worker led food riots broke out in cities across Russia. Soldiers refused to fire their weapons on the striking workers in March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II gave up his throne and leader of the Duma declared Russia a republic. However the provisional government failed to win the support of the people when it refused to withdraw from the war. 37. October Revolution: November 1917 Lenin caused unrest in Russia causing Russia to withdraw from the war. Lenin’s supporters promised “Peace,land ,and bread” Peace to the soldier, bread to the workers, and land to the peasants. The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communists and also changed the name of Russia to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 38. Russian Civil War: 1919-1921 a war broke out between the “Reds” those who support Lenin’s programs and lead by Leon Trotsky and the “Whites” those who wish to return to the rule of the Tsar. The red Army enjoyed greater support from peasants and workers. Lenin used drastic measures such as executing the monarchy to ensure that the monarchy would never be restored. 39. Bolsheviks: Supporters of Lenin eventually change their name of their political party to the Communists. 40. Lenin’s New Economic Policy: Lenin allowed for some private ownership was permitted in small scale manufacturing and agriculture. Meanwhile the government continues to control major industries, in order to slowly increase production.