Chapter 19 – Prenatal Development and Birth fertilization (p. 486) implantation (p. 486) embryo (p. 486) fetus (p. 486) amniotic sac (p. 487) umbilical cord (p. 487) placenta (p. 487) labor (p. 490) prenatal care (p. 492) birthing center (p. 492) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (p.494) miscarriage (p. 496) stillbirth (p. 496) heredity (p. 498) chromosomes (p. 499) genes (p. 499) DNA (p. 499) genetic disorder (p. 500) amniocentesis (p. 501) chorionic villi sampling (CVS) (p. 501) gene therapy (p. 503) developmental tasks (p. 504) autonomy (p. 505) scoliosis (p. 507) 1. Explain how a zygote is formed. 2. What is the relationship of the amniotic sac and the umbilical cord to the developing embryo? 3. How are the usual nine months of pregnancy divided up? 4. What is involved during prenatal visits with an obstetrician or a certified nurse-midwife? 5. Explain fetal alcohol syndrome and what causes it. 6. How might the use of tobacco by a pregnant female affect her fetus and her child after birth? 7. What is the best policy for a pregnant female regarding medicines? 8. What are some possible effects if a pregnant female uses illegal drugs? 9. What are 4 environmental hazards that can affect a fetus? 10. Explain the difference between a miscarriage and a stillbirth. 11. What is an ectopic pregnancy? 12. What are symptoms of preeclampsia and why is it serious? 13. Give 3 examples of hereditary traits in humans. 14. Explain the relationship between chromosomes and genes. 15. What happens to chromosomes as the zygote continues to divide? 16. What is the difference between dominant and recessive genes? 17. What determines the sex of an individual? 18. What are 2 common procedures used to test for genetic disorders? 19. What is the Human Genome Project? 20. Explain what gene therapy is. 21. How many developmental stages to individuals pass through during a lifetime? 22. What are the first four stages of development?