Meiosis - Answers - Iowa State University

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Iowa State University
1. What are the two types of reproduction? Give examples and descriptions of each.
1. Asexual, mitosis, unicellular divides into 2 offspring; multicellular organism makes
2 new daughter cells, genetically identical
a. Clones, rhizomes and stolons (runners), budding, daughter cel
b. Spores, plants and fungi
2. Sexual , genetic differences
2. How is genetic diversity created in sexual reproduction?
- Mutation - constant random production (low frequencies) of modified genes by changing
DNA sequences
- Bi Parental Inheritance - offspring receive half their genes from each parents
- Meiosis - mix of mom’s genes, might not be what mom looks like
3. Diploid parent cells go through meiosis to form haploid sex cells. These sex cells combine,
egg and sperm, to make a diploid zygote/fetus. The zygote’s cells go through mitosis to
generate all the somatic cells in the body.
4. You have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which is 46 individual chromatids. In meiosis the
number of chromosomes halves, so that there are only 23 individual chromatids in the 4,
haploid daughter cells.
5. What are homologous chromosomes? What does a loci have to do with them?
Homologous chromosomes are two chromatids that code for the same genes - gene line
up next to each other,
are chromosome pairs of approximately the same length, centromere position, and staining
pattern, with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci. One homologous
chromosome is inherited from the organism's mother; the other from the organism's father.[1]
They are usually not identical.
Loci (plural for Locus) is the location of a specific trait on each chromatid
6. Which sex chromosomes determine what?
X- girl
Y - boy, male linked traits always expressed in males. ALSO XXXXXXY would be a
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