• Beowulf Summary
• Canterbury Tales Prologue Summary
• Wife of Bath’s Tale
The Poetry in Beowulf
a. Compound metaphor (usually two words)
b. Most were probably used over and over
For instance: hronade
literally means “whaleroad,” but can be
translated as “sea”
More Kennings
Other kennings from Beowulf:
“bone-house” = body
“gold-friend of men” = generous prince
“ring-giver” = lord
“flashing light” = sword
The repetition of consonant sounds in words.
 Closed my lids, and kept them closed
 Lay like a load on my weary eye,
Epic Hero Traits
Making Inferences
An inference is a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and
reasoning. To make an inference based on a reading passage, look fo
 Supporting details
 Character’s actions
 Descriptions
 Dialogue
Practice on next slide
The theme in a story is its underlying message, or 'big idea.' In
other words, what critical belief about life is the author trying
to convey in the writing of a novel, play, short story or poem?
This belief, or idea, transcends cultural barriers. It is usually
universal in nature. When a theme is universal, it touches on
the human experience, regardless of race or language. It is
what the story means.
The concept of creating characters for a narrative. Characters
may be presented by means of description, through their
actions, speech, thoughts and interactions with other
Context Clues
Hints that an author gives to help define a difficult or unusual
word. The clue may appear within the same sentence as the
word to which it refers, or it may follow in a preceding
Order and structure of an article and how it creates
an overall effect
*Scroll to the bottom to see examples of different kinds of text structure.
Analyzing the effect of the author’s perspective (opinio
and purpose (what he hopes to accomplish)
Tone (Informal versus formal)