Unit 1- Reading Guide 1 Vocab: Define each of the following terms Incas Aztec Pueblo Iroquois Three-sister farming Christopher Columbus Treaty of Tordesillas Columbian Exchange Conquistadores Hernando Cortes Mestizo Encomienda system Pope’s Rebellion Joint-stock company Virginia Company Jamestown John Smith Headright system House of Burgesses Bacon’s Rebellion Puritan Name_________________________ Separatists Mayflower Compact John Winthrop “City upon a hill” Roger Williams King Philip’s War William Penn Quaker Mercantilism Navigation Acts Molasses Act Triangular trade Middle passage Stono Rebellion New York slave revolt Great Awakening Enlightenment Albany Congress Pontiac Proclamation of 1763 Guided Reading Questions: Provide comprehensive answers, in complete sentences, to each of the following questions. 1. What effect did the Protestant Reformation in Europe have during the period of North American colonization? How did the Renaissance spur exploration? 2. Describe the impact of Columbus’ discovery and European colonization in the “New World” on the following groups: Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans. 3. Make a diagram that shows the exchange of plants, wildlife, and diseases known as the Columbian Exchange. 4. From the section, “Building Spain’s American Empire,” what were the effects of the encomienda system, and to who did Spain look to as a source of labor when it ended? 5. While the Spanish were especially brutal when colonizing the Southwest of what is now the United States, what was the underlying reason for Pope’s rebellion in 1680? 6. What role did Spanish missions play, especially in the area of present-day Texas? 7. From the section “English Motives for American Colonization,” summarize the factors that influenced British colonization in North America. 8. Now that you’ve defined joint-stock company, and read page 9, what is the main motive for the British colony of Jamestown? Why is the charter of the Virginia Company significant? 9. Why do you think the colony of Jamestown got off to such a disastrous start? What ultimately saves the colony, economically? 10. Why is the year 1619 such an important one for the Virginia colony…and eventually the United States of America? (If you’re confused, Jamestown is the first settlement in the larger colony called Virginia) 11. What were the causes of Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676? Who did the “Lordly planters” turn to for labor following this rebellion? 12. Just prior to their arrival at Plymouth, the Pilgrim leaders signed the Mayflower Compact. Despite this not being a constitution, why is this document important? 13. Who got to participate in “democracy” in the Massachusetts Bay colony? 14. Why is Roger Williams a problem to the Puritans? What does he do after being banished? Why is that significant? 15. What were the consequences of King Philip’s War, for both sides fighting? 16. So…how did New York become…New York? 17. What were some of William Penn’s motives for starting the colony of Pennsylvania? Why was Pennsylvania unique (think religion and how Native Americans were treated)? 18. So what’s really the point of the mercantilist system? How does it work? What is the purpose of colonies? 19. Why did Britain pass the Navigation Acts? Can you figure out why they “foreshadowed trouble between the colonies and England”? 20. Describe the structure of colonial governments. Why was participation in local assemblies significant for the colonists? 21. What was the basis for the economies of the Southern colonies? How did Southern society reflect this economic focus? 22. Describe how slaves coped with their condition of servitude. Why is the Stono Rebellion significant? 23. Describe the economies of the middle and Northern colonies. Did slavery exist in these regions? 24. What were the causes and effects of the Great Awakening in the colonies? 25. Make sure you know the ideas of the philosophers in the section on the Enlightenment. 26. What was the significance of the Great Awakening and Enlightenment in the colonies? 27. What was the cause(s) of the French and Indian War? 28. What were the short and long-term goals of the Albany Congress? Were they accomplished? 29. Why was Pontiac’s uprising consequential for the British and the colonists? 30. What mistake did the British make in establishing a Proclamation Line in 1763?