Study Guide Post-Classical Period

Study Guide Post-Classical Period
Structure of the Test:
Somewhere around 75 multiple choice
Empires: Know characteristics of in terms of:
Arab/Dar al-Islam: Umayyad, Abbasid, (Seljuk Turks)
Africa: Nubia, Kush, Axum, Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Western Europe- generalities relating to feudal system
Eastern Europe- Byzantine Empire, Kievan Rus
China- Era of Disunity, Sui, Tang, Song, (Mongols- Yuan)
Japan- Taika Reforms, Nara, Heian, Feudalism
Characteristics of Korea and Vietnam in general
Americas- Maya, Aztec, Incas
Rebirth of the West (Renaissance and Reformation)
Political (unified, centralized, feudal etc),
religious (which, interact, tolerant?, power?),
economic (what involved in, what MOST do,
impact of it, development of $),
technology (who has cool stuff, what is it),
social structure (who has rights, what are
gender (roles, rights interaction)
Major Themes: Know characteristics, impact of, participants in…
Trade throughout empires
Expansion of religion
Population/demography and migration (who, why, where?)
How governments formed to control areas- where/why feudalism developed; who/why strong
Boundary Conflicts- between which peoples, why, impact
Technological expansion- what, who, where, how, impact
Environmental impacts at the time (colder climate change=less food availability=more fighting)
Disease (where, what, WHY, how spread)
Random Summary from notes: If you can do this, and expand on each some you will be fine!
Arab- good technology, banking/trade develop, most herders, caliphs and bureaucracy pretty
centralized and unified except for Sunni/Shiite differences (Abbasid more than Umayyad), role
of foreigners and religion (Umayyad must be Arab AND Muslim, Abbasid must be Muslim),
taxes on non-Muslims but tolerant of people of the book, good treatment of conquered people,
spread religion mostly through trade, crusades doesn’t much affect them they retain control of
Africa- early societies ‘stateless’, gold salt trade, convert Islam, don’t develop much agriculture
or manufacturing b/c buy resources w/ gold
Western Europe- invasions, couldn’t control without ‘deals’ with nobility and feudal system,
not much into trade until after Crusades, pretty backward in comparison to others, begin
developing ‘nations’, 2 main controllers- catholic church and feudalism, church abuses of power,
great schism, guilds, crusades military failure but help reconnect to eastern technologies, climate
change and plague hurt population and agriculture growth characteristic of earlier in the period
Eastern Europe- Byzantine continuation of Roman empire, Greek language, Orthodox religion,
government theocracy, king make ALL decisions both political and religious, Justinian main guy
help expand (doesn’t last) and write law code, wife Theodora help make Byzantine women have
more rights than other places… Kievan Rus slav people, borrow Byzantine culture/religion,
conquered by Mongols, eventually take back and then Russia
China etc- clash between Buddhism (aristocracy) and Neoconfucianism (bureaucrats), foot
binding and position of women, major building projects cause economic issues for empires, great
canal connects regions, influence on Korea, Japan, Vietnam, scholar gentry (bureaucracy)
reestablished and expanded, economic expansion and exploration but bad attitude to outsiders,
Mongol influence on trade and religion
Americas- migrated from Asia, lack of major contact with eastern hemisphere but lots of contact
between major empires on the Americas, develop sophisticated civilizations but often no written
language, polytheistic religion, large urban centers, based on agriculture
Middle East (Islamic Empires)-
Africa (Kingdoms & Swahili Coast)-
Europe (and Byzantine Empire)-
Asia (Dynasties & Mongols)-
Americas (Incas, Aztecs)-