Pengelolaan Organisasi Entrepreneurial

Mata kuliah
Dosen Pembuat
: J0754 - Pengelolaan Organisasi Entrepreneurial
: D3122 - Rudy Aryanto
: 2009
Desain Kerja
Chapter 23
Learning Objectives
– Define job design
– Discuss how job design can help improve work-family
– Describe alternative job design approaches that
organizations use to improve job performance
– Discuss the various factors and relationships
that link job design and job performance
– Compare job enrichment and job enlargement design
– Identify specific individual differences that account for
different perceptions of job content
Allowing for Work/Life Balance
• U.S. companies are experimenting
with work design and benefits
– Encouraging employees to balance
their work and personal lives
Job Design
• Jobs are the building blocks of all organization structures
• Job design
– The process by which managers
decide individual jobs and authority
– A major cause of effective job performance
Job Redesign
• The process by which
managers reconsider
– What employees are
expected to do
– How they are expected
to do it
• This is a dynamic, ongoing process
Job Design
• Issues associated with job design and Quality of Work
Designing Jobs to Enhance QWL
• Quality of work life is a philosophy
of management that
– Enhances the dignity of all workers
– Changes an organization’s culture
– Improves the physical and emotional
well-being of employees
• It is based on
– Human relations movement of the 1950s
– Job enrichment efforts of the 60s and 70s
Designing Jobs to Enhance QWL
• Indicators of quality of work life include
Accident rates
Sick leave usage
Employee turnover
Number of grievances filed
Designing Jobs to Enhance QWL
• Not yet known are trade-offs between
– Gains in human terms
– Improved production, quality, and efficiency through revitalization
• Conflicting beliefs
– Delay QWL efforts in order to make the U.S. economy more
– Competition presents opportunities to combine QWL with
Job Design
• Attempts to…
– Identify the most important needs of employees and the
– Remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those
Work/Family Balance & Job Design
• Organizations are:
– Directing more attention and resources toward helping
employees balance work and family demands
– Accommodating diverse employee needs by offering flexible
work arrangements
Work/Family Balance & Job Design
• Benefits to companies that offer flexible work programs
Higher recruitment and retention rates
Improved morale
Lower absenteeism and tardiness
Higher levels of employee productivity
Work/Family Balance & Job Design
• Driving this work/life tension
– More women and single parents in workforce
– Increase in dual-career couples
– Aging population
• Flexible work arrangements
– Job sharing
– Flextime
– Telecommuting
Important Concepts of Job Design
Conceptual Model of Job Design and Job Performance
Task factors
Job analysis
Social setting
Job design
job content
Job Performance Outcomes
• Objective outcomes can be measured in quantitative
• For each job, implicit or explicit standards exist
Job Performance Outcomes
• Personal behavior outcomes are the ways one reacts to
the work itself
Attending work regularly or being absent
Staying with the job or quitting
Physiological and/or health-related problems
Physical or mental impairment
Accidents or occupation-related disease
Job Performance Outcomes
• Intrinsic outcomes
– The objects or events that follow from the workers’ own effort
• Extrinsic outcomes
– The objects or events that follow the workers’ efforts in
conjunction with other factors or persons not directly involved in
the job
• Job satisfaction depends on
– Levels of intrinsic and extrinsic outcomes
– How the job-holder views those outcomes
Job Analysis
• The purpose of job analysis
– To provide an objective description of
the job itself
• Job analysis gathers and identifies information about
– Content
– Requirements
– Context
Functional Job
Analysis has
produced the most
extensive list of
occupational titles
available today
Job Analysis: Job Content
• Job Content refers to the activities required of
the job
• Functional job analysis (FJA) describes job
content in terms of...
1.What the worker does in relation to data, people,
and jobs
2.What methods and techniques the worker uses
3.What machines, tools, and equipment the worker
4.What materials, products, subject matter, or
services the worker produces
Job Analysis: Job Requirements
• Job requirements
– The education, experience, licenses,
and other personal characteristics an individual needs to perform
the job
• Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
– Takes into account human characteristics, as well as task and
technological factors,
of jobs and job classes
Job Analysis: Job Requirements
• The PAQ identifies and analyzes these job aspects
Information sources critical to job performance
Information processing
Decision making
Physical activity and dexterity
Interpersonal relationships
Reactions to working conditions
Job Analysis: Job Context
• Job context
– Describes the environment within which the job is to be
• It refers to such factors as
Physical demands and working conditions of the job
Degree of accountability and responsibility
Extent of supervision required or exercised
Consequences of error
Job Analysis: Different Settings
• Jobs in the Factory
– Analyzed using Scientific management
• F. W. Taylor’s principles
Replace rule-of-thumb with scientific methods
Scientifically select, train, and develop workmen
Heartily cooperative with the workers
Divide work equally between management and workmen
Job Analysis: Different Settings
• Jobs in the Office
– Fastest growing segment is secretarial, clerical, and information
– Due to technological breakthroughs
– Human factors must be given special attention
– Tendency to overemphasize technological aspects
The Results of Job Analysis
• Job designs specify three characteristics of jobs
– Range
– Depth
– Relationships
The Results of Job Analysis
• Job range
– The number of tasks a person is expected to perform
– The more tasks required, the greater the job range
• Job depth
– Degree of influence or discretion that an individual has to choose
job activities and job outcomes
Job Depth and Range
• College presidents
Job depth
High • College professors
• Hospital anesthesiologists
• Business packaging machine
• Hospital chiefs of surgery
• Business research scientists
• College instructors
• College dept. chairpersons
• Hospital bookkeepers
• Business assembly-line
Low workers
• Hospital nurses
• Business maintenance repair
Job Range
The Results of Job Analysis
• Job Relationships
– Determined by managers’ decisions regarding
departmentalization bases
and spans of control
– The wider the span of control, the larger the group
– The larger the group, the harder it is to establish friendship and
interest relationships
• The basis for departmentalization impacts job
– Functional basis places jobs with similar depth and range in the
same groups
– Product, territory, and customer bases place jobs with dissimilar
depth and
range in the same group
Perceived Job Content
• Specific job activities and general job
characteristics, as perceived by individuals
performing the job
– Two people doing the same job may have the same or different
perceptions of job content
• To increase job performance by changing
perceived job content, change…
– Job design
– Individual perceptions
– Social settings
Perceived Job Content
Task Identity
Dealing with Others
Friendship Opportunities
Individual Differences
• Perception of task variety is affected by
individual differences in need strength
– Employees with weak higher order needs are less
concerned with performing a variety of tasks than are
employees with strong growth needs
– Even individuals with strong growth needs cannot
respond continuously to the opportunity to perform
more and more tasks
– Performance will turn down as individuals reach the
limits imposed by their abilities and time
Social Setting Differences
• Social settings affect perceptions of
job content
– Leadership style
– What others say about the job
• Perception about job content results from the interaction
of many factors
in the work situation
Job Rotation and Enlargement
• Job Rotation
– Moving managers/non-managers from one
job to another
– The individual completes more job activities because each job
includes different tasks
– Involves increasing the range of jobs and
the perception of variety in job content
Job Rotation and Enlargement
• Job Enlargement
– Increases the number of tasks for which an individual is
– Increases job range, but not depth
Job Enrichment
• Job enrichment
– Increasing the discretion individuals can use to select activities
and outcomes
– Increases job depth and fulfills growth
and autonomy needs
• Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation
– The impetus for designing job depth
Job Enrichment
• Provide employees with greater opportunities to exercise
discretion through…
Direct feedback
New learning
Control over resources
Personal accountability
Job Characteristics Model
Psychological States
Skill Variety
Task Identity
Task Significance
of Work
Responsibility for
Outcomes of Work
Knowledge of
Actual Results of
Work Activities
Employee’s Growth
Need Strength
Personal & Work
•High internal
work motivation
work performance
•High satisfaction
with work
•Low absenteeism
and turnover
Increasing Core Dimensions of Jobs
• To increase core dimensions
Combine task elements
Assign whole pieces of work
Allow discretion in selection of work methods
Permit self-paced control
Open feedback channels
• These actions increase task variety, identity, and
Job Design Problems
• Potential job design problems
– Time-consuming and costly
– Unless lower-level needs are satisfied, people will not respond to
opportunities to satisfy upper-level needs
– Job redesign may raise employees’ expectations beyond what is
– Change may be resisted by labor unions
– May not produce tangible improvements for some time after the
effort begins
Teams and Job Design
• The use of work teams has become common in
– Work teams don’t always achieve high levels of productivity,
cooperation, success
• Researchers claim that good work
team job design can lead to…
– Higher levels of team productivity
– Employee satisfaction
– Effectiveness
Teams and Job Design
• Key team characteristics to address
Task variety
Task significance
Task identity
TQM and Job Design
• Total quality management combines technical and
human knowledge
– Jobs designed with TQM in mind empower individuals to
make important decisions about product and service quality
Sociotechnical Theory
• Focuses on interactions between
– Technical demands of the job
– Social demands of the job holder
• Compatible with TQM theory
– Relates to demands of modern technology and self-motivated
job behavior
– In today’s global environment, sociotechnical system design has
been incorporated in the TQM approach