job design

Job design involves systematic attempt to
organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a
unit of work to achieve certain objectives.
Job design is the process of
a) Deciding the contents of the job.
b) Deciding methods to carry out the job.
c) Deciding the relationship which exists in the
Job design is the conscious efforts to
responsibilities into one unit of work.
It involves
› identification of individual tasks
› specification of methods of performing
the tasks
› combination of tasks into specific jobs
to be assigned to individuals
JOB REDESIGN - aimed at reducing or overcoming job
dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising
from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job
redesign, organizations try to raise productivity
levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as
greater satisfaction from a sense of personal
achievement in meeting the increased challenge and
responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job
enrichment, job rotation, are the various
techniques used in a job design exercise.
The complexity of the work - to be carried out, both in
terms of its variety or breadth and its technical
difficulty or depth.
The work processes involved -It might be desirable for
one person to be involved in an entire process, or the
work flows may be such that the work process has to be
divide between several different people.
The nature of the people currently employed in the
organization-The extent to which jobs can be redesigned
depend largely on the kind of people employed
•The timescales - where immediate responses
are required.
•The geographical scattering of the
organization’s activities .
•The effect of information technology
•The growth level of an organization & available
The level of resources available
expertise need to perform a task.
•Availability of human resource in the
Engineering Approach
› The most important single element in the
Engineering approaches, proposed by FW
Taylor, was the task idea.
› “The work of every workman is fully
planned out by the management at least
one day in advance and each man
receives in most cases complete written
instructions, describing in detail the task
which he is to accomplish
The scientific management principle
› Work should be scientifically studied
› Fragmentation and routinization of work
will reap the advantages of specialization
› Work should be arranged so that workers
can be efficient
Employees selected for work should be
matched to the demands of the job
› Employees should be trained to perform
the job
› Monetary compensation should be used to
reward successful performance of the job
› Walker and Guest
 Repetition: Performing a few tasks
repeatedly led to boredom
 Mechanical pacing: Assembly line
workers were compelled to maintain a
certain regular pace of work and could
not take needed breaks
 No end product: Not turning out any
identifiable end product led to less enthusiasm
in work
 Little social interaction: Because the assembly
line demanded constant attention, there was
very little opportunity to interact on a casual
basis and share work experiences
No input: No opportunity to choose the
 methods for performing their jobs
 the tools which they used
 the work procedures
This created little interest in the job
because there was nothing which
employees could improve or change
Hackman and Oldham -
Employees will work hard when
they are rewarded for the work they do
when the work gives them satisfaction
Any job can be described in terms of five core job
› Skill variety: The degree to which the job
requires workers to use a variety of different
› activities
› talents
› skills
in order to successfully complete the job
› Task identity: The degree to which the job allows
workers to complete whole tasks from start to
finish, rather than disjointed portions of the job
› Task significance: The degree to which the job
significantly impacts the lives of others both
within and outside the workplace
› Autonomy: The degree to which the job allows
workers freedom in planning, scheduling and
the methods used to complete the job
› Feedback: The degree to which the job itself
provides workers with clear, direct and
understandable knowledge of their
Modern management recognizes the
disadvantages of highly specialized jobs specialization increases cost of employee
absenteeism and turnover, and decreases
productivity and quality
HR managers have to balance employees’ human
needs and employers’ economic goals
Job rotation
 Job enlargement
 Job enrichment
Job design involves periodic assignment
of an employee to completely different
sets of job activities.
job rotation is low in both impact and
complexity because it typically moves
employees from one routine job to
 At
McDonald's, cross-functional
job rotations are encouraged,
globally and in India. "It is a winwin situation -- win for the
organization, the team and the
employee," says Amit Jatia, joint
venture partner and managing
director, McDonald's, Western India
It is an effective way to develop multiple skills
in employees, which benefits the organization
while creating greater job interest and career
options for the employee.
Job rotation may be of considerable benefit if it
is part of a larger redesign effort and/or it is
used as a training and development approach to
develop various employee competencies and
prepare employees for advancement.
Job enlargement combines into one job with
two or more tasks which are to be
performed. SometimeS it iS called “
horizontal loading” aS all taSkS involve
the same level of responsibility .The job
enlargement approach often has positive
effects on employee effectiveness.
However, some employees view job
enlargement as just adding more routine,
repetitive tasks to their already boring
job. Other employees regard it as
disturbing their time to perform their
core jobs.
Job Enlargement is the horizontal
expansion of a job. It involves the
addition of tasks at the same level
of skill and responsibility. It is done
to keep workers from getting bored.
It is different than job enrichment
 Thus the worker who previously only
bolted the seat to legs might attach
the back as well
Job enlargement and job rotation
approaches are useful in many work
One of their biggest advantages is that :
They offer a form of training.
They allow workers to learn more than
one task, thus increasing their value
to the employer.
As they allow workers to perform many
tasks, they can be used more flexibly as
circumstances require
Examples: Small companies may not
have as many opportunities for
promotions, so they try to motivate
employees through job enlargement.
Frederick Herzberg, suggested a clear and
diStinct job deSign method called “job
Job enrichment seeks to add profundity to a job
by giving workers more control, responsibility,
and freedom of choice over how their job is
It occurs when the work itself is more
challenging, when there is prospect for growth,
and when responsibility, feedback, and
recognition are provided.
Nonetheless, employees are the final
judges of what enriches their jobs.
Herzberg developed the following set of
principles for the enrichment of jobs:
removing some controls while retaining
increasing personal accountability for
assigning each worker a complete unit
work with a clear start and end point;
granting additional authority and
freedom to workers;
making periodic reports directly
available to workers rather than to
supervisors only;
the introduction for new and more
difficult tasks into the job
provide variety in terms of the kind of
work carried out
allow people to get direct feedback on
allow scope for development by enabling
the job to become bigger as the person
becomes more skilled and knowledge;
have clear objectives and outputs;
 have clear reporting lines;
 give people
some control over
output and pace;
 give people the opportunity to
comment and suggest changes to
the work process;
 be supported by the appropriate
level of resources and effective