Structural intervention
Meaning & Introduction
• Also called as Techno structural Intervention.
• Aimed at improving organizational
effectiveness through changes in the tasks,
structural, technological and goal processes in
the organizations.
• Focus on job design, division of labor and
hierarchy, arrangements of equipment and
people etc.
Types of Structural Interventions
Socio Technical Systems (STS)
Self managed Teams
Work Redesign
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Quality Circles
Quality of work life projects (QWL)
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Socio technical Systems
• Is based on joint optimization of the social and
technological systems of organization.
• The boundary between the organization & its
environment should be managed to allow
effective exchanges but protection from
external disruptions.
• The implementation of STS should be highly
Self managed teams
• Providing teams with a grouping of tasks that
comprises a major unit of the total work to be
• Training group members in multiple skills,
including team effectiveness skills.
• Delegating to the team many aspects of how the
work gets done.
• Providing a great deal of information and
feedback for self regulation of quality &
Work Redesign
• Richard Hackman & Greg Oldham have
provided an OD approach to work design
based on theoretical model of what job
characteristics lead to psychological states
that produce high internal work motivation.
• Based on five job characteristics- Skill variety,
task identity, task significance, autonomy and
feedback from the job.
• Goal setting and performance review processes
should have a team thrust and should be both
participative and transactional.
• Based on participative and transactional we
mean that in goal setting, subordinates should
have meaningful ways to provide inputs; and
in reviewing performance, a collaborative
examination of the forces in the situation needs
to be made.
• MBO may be described as a process consisting
of series of inter related stepsThe subordinate proposes a set of goals for the
upcoming time period.
The subordinate and supervisor jointly
developed specific goals and targets. These
goals must be specific and measurable.
The actual performance of the individual is
measured against his goals.
The feedback of results to the individual and
appropriate rewards for performance.
The outcome of the performance review
provides the basis for setting new
performance goals.
Quality Circles
It is a form of group problem solving and goal
setting with a primary focus on maintaining
and enhancing product quality.
Quality circles consists of 7-10 employees
from a unit who meet together regularly to
analyze and make proposals about product
Leaders are encouraged to create a high
degree of participation within the group.
• It includes restructuring of several dimensions
of the organization.
• Increased problem solving between
management and the union.
• Increased participation by teams of
employees in shop floor decisions pertaining
to production flow, quality control and safety.
• Skill development through skill training, job
rotation, and training in team problem solving.
• Total Quality Management is a
combination of a number of organization
improvement techniques and approaches
including the use of quality circles,
statistical quality control and extensive
use of employee participation.
Characteristics of TQM
• Primary emphasis on customers
• It is based on measurement using SQC
• Continuous search for sources of defects with
a goal of eliminating them entirely.
• Participative Management
• Emphasis on teams & team work
• Continuous training