Study Guide Exam Four
Remember, a study guide is meant to guide you; it is not a comprehensive list of exam questions. Make sure you know (where applicable) how each term/idea relates to the others.
What are the three types of muscle tissue? How are they similar? Different? And where are they located in the body?
What are the names and locations of the three connective tissue sheaths associated with skeletal muscle?
Muscle attachments. (origin and insertion)
What is the structure and function of a skeletal muscle fiber and its’ contents. (ex. Sarcolemma,T-tubules, SR, etc.)
What is a sarcomere? What is a sarcomere composed of? What happens to the length of a sarcomere during a contraction?
What are the regions of a sarcomere and what types of filaments are located there?
What are thick and thin filaments and what types of contractile proteins do they contain?
What are the special features of the myosin head?
What is ATP hydrolysis and what is it used for?
What are the events of the cross bridge cycle?
What type of cell stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to contract?
What is the neuromuscular junction? What does it include?
What specific types of receptors are located on the junctional folds of the sarcolemma?
Be able to describe all of the steps leading up to and during a muscle contraction.
What is an action potential and what are its characteristics?
What ion is the final trigger for muscle contraction and why?
What is acetylcholinesterase and what is its function?
What is a motor unit?
What do wave summation, incomplete (unfused) or complete (fused) tetanus look like on a myogram? What is happening to intracellular calcium levels in these situations and what does that mean for the amount of tension generated during the contraction?
What is a muscle twitch? What are the three phases of a muscle twitch and what is taking place during these phases?
What is a graded muscle response? How are muscle contractions graded?
What are all of the two ways to increase contractile force in skeletal muscle?
What molecule provides energy for muscle contraction?
What are the three pathways that regenerate ATP and for each one, you should know: o o o o
What are the fuel sources
What is the energy provision
What is muscle fatigue and what is it caused by?
Be able to identify and give at least one action for all of the muscles discussed in class.
What are syngergists and antagonists?