Ms. Berry Social Studies 6th grade Why are laws important today? How did early civilizations protect themselves and keep order with in their societies? Most wars were fought over farmland and water rights. No natural boundaries City-states put up pillars to mark borders Pillars were destroyed and cities were taken over New weapons were created- war chariot First known conqueror Was the King of the city-state Kish Established an empire with his army Became first emperor Capital city was Akkad Akkadians adopted the Sumerian culture He ruled for 55 years Created the first paid army 2300 B.C. the empire weakened 1790-1750 B.C. Hammurabi, King of citystate Babylon conquered and reunited most of Mesopotamia Babylonian Empire Promoted trade and building projects Created a system of taxation- everyone paid their share Best known for his collection of laws- Code of Hammurabi By 1600 B.C. the Babylonians were conquered 282 laws Dealt with daily life topics such as marriage, divorce, adoption, slaves, murder, stealing, military service, land, business, loans, prices, and wages Set standard punishments Introduced the idea of equal justice or fair treatment under the law However, this equality was limited to social class The Hanging gardens of Babylon Created by Nebuchadnezzar II, ruler of Babylon from 605 to 562 B.C. A series of terraced gardens that had elaborate irrigation systems Said that he built them to please his wife who missed the forested mountains of her homeland http://www.unmuseum.org/hangg.htm Had a great desire to control trade routes Conquered neighbors one by one using war chariots United their empire by building roads Capital city was Nineveh 612 B.C. the empire was brought down by Medes, invaders from the Northwest How did the people of Mesopotamia maintain order and protect themselves from outsiders?