The World – Chapter 2 - Morris Plains School District

The World – Chapter 2
Early Civilizations
Fertile Crescent – a region of southwestern Asia where
civilizations first developed
- Stretched in a crescent shape from the Mediterranean
Sea to the Persian Gulf
- Tigris and Euphrates Rivers travel through the FC
Mesopotamia – An ancient region where the area between the
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
- Plenty of fresh water to support life
- the first Mesopotamians were farmers
Irrigation – a system of farmers building trenches to divert
water from the rivers to their fields
Lesson Two
Sumer – a city-state in southern Mesopotamia
- residents specialized in farming, business, military,
jewelry, pottery, etc
- Sumerians practiced Polytheism
- Advanced civilization that created: cuneiform, ziggurats,
Cuneiform – wedge-shaped markings on a clay, stone or gold
tablet created by a scribe
- It was simpler than using Picture writing
Polytheism – the worship of many gods
- Sumerians and Akkadians practiced this religion
- Gods and goddess were responsible for the well-being of
the people and the fertility of the land
Sargon – Akkadian ruler who captured many city-states to form
the world’s first empire.
Lesson Three
Babylon/Babylonia – a city and empire that covered all of
Hammurabi – King of the city of Babylon in 1792 B.C. and
controlled all of Mesopotamia. His empire was known as
 His empire spread from the Persian Gulf to the Zagros
 Sent officials to collect taxes in all of his lands
 Established a set of laws called “Code of Hammurabi”
Code of Hammurabi – Set of laws King Hammurabi established.
- Set of 282 laws
- Dealt with business practices, property, medical
practices, marriage and childcare.
- Overall belief that the “strong” should NOT oppress the
“weak”. Protected the people
Assyrians – a culture in northern Mesopotamia
 Expanded their territory from 1900B.C. to 600B.C.
 War and conquest was of higher value to them
 Great warriors
 At its peak ruled by King Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal – King of the Assyrians from 688B.C. to 627 B. C.
 Personally led his armies into battles
 Very educated, could read and write
 He built a great library
Nebuchadnezzar II - King of Babylon in 605 B.C.
 He took over much of the former Assyrian Empire
 Ordered massive building projects to make city “Great and
 He made Babylon a important center of learning
 Advancements in mathematics (place value of numbers)
Ex . 5, 55, 555
 Advancement in astrology
Lesson Four
Abraham – a shepherd who lived in Ur. He is considered by
Jewish people today to be the first Jew
 God spoke to him
 He made a covenant to God to worship only ONE God
 Founder of Judaism
 His followers became known as “Hebrews”
Monotheism – The worship of only one GOD
Israel – About 1000 B.C. became the new kingdom for the
 In 722 B.C. Israel fell to the Assyrians
Phoenicians – expert traders and sailors who lived along the
eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea
 Established trading posts all along the Mediterranean Sea
 Carthage (North Africa) was the richest and most
 Their trading spread goods and new ideas to the rest of the