DEFINITION - Mrs. Silverman: Social Studies

Groups &
Part 1: Social
Social Structure: Status
• DEFINITION: socially
defined position within
a group or society
• Status Set:
• Refers to EVERY status
that an individual holds at any given point
in time
Ascribed v. Achieved Status
• Ascribed Status:
• A status assigned according to standards
that are beyond a person’s control
• Achieved Status:
• A status acquired by an individual on the
basis of some special skill, knowledge or
Ascribed v. Achieved Status?
Master Status
social position
that holds
exceptional importance for identity, often
shaping a person’s entire life
• What is your master status right now?
Social Structure: Role
• DEFINITION: the behavior expected of
someone occupying a particular status
• The dynamic expression of status
• Role Conflict:
• The incompatibility among roles
corresponding to two or more statuses
Part 2: Social
Types of Social Gatherings
• Social Group
• Social Category
• Social Aggregate
Types of Social Gatherings
• Social Group: collection of people who
interact, share similar characteristics and
have a sense of unity
• Social Category: collection of people who do
not interact, but who share similar
• Social Aggregate: at any given time, a
collection of people who are together but
who interact very little
Primary & Secondary Groups
• Primary Group:
• Small social group whose members share
personal & enduring relationships
• Secondary Group:
• Large & impersonal social group whose
members pursue a specific interest or
Social Networks
• Social Network:
• The web of relationships that is formed by
the sum total of a person’s interactions with
other people
• Includes direct & indirect relationships
Six Degrees of Separation?
• Experiment by Stanley Milgram in 1967
• Study has been questioned, but theory is
interesting…randomly select 2 people in
different parts of country and see how many
connections would it take to link them
• 2011 Facebook study – average number of
links 4.74 (less in US – 4.37)
Part 3: Group
Size Matters!
• Dyad: Group of 2
• Most intimate
• Each member has direct control over group
• Triad: Group of 3
• No one person can disband group
• Easier decision-making
Size Matters!
• What is happens to groups as they get
In-Groups v. Out-Groups
• Characteristics of
• Titles, external symbols & dress
• Competition with members of the out-group;
strengthens unity within each group
• Apply positive stereotypes to the in-group;
negative stereotypes to the out-group
Conformity within Groups
• Conformity:
• a change in beliefs
or actions
that results in
adherence to group norms
• How susceptible are individuals to group
Conformity within Groups
• Pressure to Conform:
• Strength of social
• Immediacy of social pressure
• Number of people involved in the source
of social pressure
Conformity within Groups
• Asch Experiment:
• WYFFT Elevator Clip:
Compliance in Groups
• Compliance: a change in behavior prompted
by a direct request rather than social norms;
• 6 Primary Factors:
• Friendship, commitment, scarcity, reciprocity,
social validation, authority…
Compliance in Groups
• Milgram Experiment:
Group Leadership
• Expressive Leaders:
• Affiliation motivated
• Cooperative style of management
• Instrumental Leaders:
• Achievement motivated
• Directive style of management
Part 4:
Performance in
Group Behavior
• Group-Think:
• When members of a
cohesive group endorse
a single explanation or
answer, usually at the expense of ignoring
• No toleration of dissenting opinions
Group Behavior
• Group-Think happens when there is:
• A strong, persuasive group leader
• A high level of group cohesion
• Intense pressure from the outside to make a
good decision
Loafing & Compensation
• Social Loafing:
• The tendency to
work less when
responsibility for
an outcome is spread
throughout several
members of a group
Loafing & Compensation
• Social Compensation:
• The tendency to work harder when one is
part of a group, rather than when he or she
is alone
Pro-social Behavior
• DEFINITION: acting to benefit others
• More likely to help if:
• Have a high need for approval
• Personal and social responsibility
• Sense of empathy
Pro-social Behavior
• More likely to be helped by others if:
• Perceived as a potential leader
• Not responsible for predicament
• Member of helper’s group
• Bystander Effect:
• The more people present, the less likely each
individual is to help someone in distress
Part 5: Formal
Formal Organizations
• Utilitarian
• An organization that
provides material
benefits in exchange
for labor
Formal Organizations
• Normative
• An organization that
pursues what they
believe to be a morally worthwhile goal
Formal Organizations
• Coercive
• An organization
that serves as a
form of punishment & treatment