Study Guide 2 Social Psychology (250) Names to know: Dr. Nowatka Aronson, D. Bem, Festinger, Heider, Eagly, Janis, Asch, Milgram, Zimbardo, Sherif, Zajonc Chapter 4 - Self 1.What are the origins of self knowledge? How does social interaction influence our self perceptions? 2. What are the 2 factors in Schachter’s theory of arousal? 3. How does self-perception typically differ in Western vs. Eastern cultures? 4. Define the self-schema and schematicity. How do self-schemas affect our processing of information about ourselves and others, in children and in adults? 5. Describe McGuire’s methodology — the spontaneous self-concept. What factors influence the spontaneous self-concept? 6. What are the ideal self and “ought” self? What are the outcomes of focusing on these? 7. What is self-complexity? What are the effects of having a more versus less complex self? 8. Define self-awareness and describe the factors that induce this state. What did we learn from the Cheating and Candy Studies? 9. What are the motivations that drive self-regulation? Describe Tesser’s self-evaluation maintenance model & predictions of the comparison effect and the reflection effect. 10. What is the basic idea behind Festinger’s social comparison theory? What are the goals of social comparison? 11. By what mechanisms do people attempt to manage the impressions that they make on others? 12. What is self-handicapping? Chapter 10 – Groups 1. Explain the phenomena of social facilitation and social inhibition. How does Zajonc’s theory explain them? How does evaluation apprehension differ? What were the findings of the 8-ball and cockroach studies? What is the “most dominant response tendency”? 2. What is social loafing and how can it be decreased? 3. Explain deindividuation and the primary factor that leads to it. Describe Zimbardo’s Prison Study. 4. What factors increase and what factors decrease group cohesiveness? 5. How did research on the risky shift phenomenon lead to the concept of group polarization? 6. Describe groupthink, along with its causes and consequences. 7. What factors lead people to behave cooperatively versus competitively? What is the prisoner’s dilemma? 8. What are the great-person, situational, and contingency models of leadership? 9. As discussed in class, are groups (i.e., juries) better or worse than individuals at decision making? Why? Chapter 7 - Social Influence 1. What are conformity, obedience, and compliance? 2. What are the evidence and theories on sex differences in conformity? 3. Describe the Sherif, Asch, and Milgram studies, along with their findings. How can the power of Milgram’s situation be explained? 4. Describe the immediate and delayed reactions of Milgram’s subjects to participating in his initial study. In Milgram’s later research, what factors increased and what factors decreased subjects’ obedience? 5. What are informational and normative influence? What factors influence conformity? When do minorities tend to reduce conformity to the majority pattern? 6. What has cross-cultural research shown with respect to conformity? 7. What factors give people social power? 8. Describe the foot-in-the-door, pique, door-in-the-face, and that’s-not-all techniques. 9. Explain the Eichmann defense, the “normality thesis,” and the relevance of the fundamental attribution error for obedience. Chapter 11 - Gender 1. Explain the cognitive biases that promote and maintain gender stereotypes. What is the cross-cultural research on gender stereotypes? Describe the three factors (in the book) that determine whether stereotypes are activated or not. 2. What messages do teachers send to boys and girls about their academic successes and failures? 3. How do children’s knowledge of and adherence to gender roles change with age? 4. Explain the phenomenon of transsexualism. What treatments have and have not been successful? What is psychological androgyny? What are the results of research on flexibility and self-esteem in androgynous persons? 5. Briefly list the findings on sex differences in social behavior. What general conclusions can be drawn about the research on sex differences? 6. How have sex roles changed and how have they remained the same? 7. What theories are included in the current, integrated approach to sex-role development and what contribution does each make? Explain the biology-environment controversy. 8. Which prior beliefs were confirmed and which disconfirmed by Kinsey’s groundbreaking research on sexual behavior? What are the results of the more recent metaanalysis by Oliver and Shibley Hyde?