America Moves to the Cities

Ch. 25: America Moves to the
Cities: 1865-1900
Mr. Long
AP US History
The Urban Frontier
• The Growth of cities
– Cities grew both up and out
(Skyscraper: George Fuller)
• Skyscrapers = more homes/workspace in
smaller area
– Electric Elevator made them usable
– Mass transit made commuting
• Trolley, subway, railroads, etc.
• This also meant cities could grow bigger
• As we move from an agricultural society to an
industrial society people begin to move from
the country to the city.
– Population is
(x2 from 1870-1900)
• By 1900: 1 of 4 were city dwellers
The Urban Frontier
• Why did people move to the city?
– JOBS!! (#1 reason)
– Lifestyle
• Electricity, indoor plumbing, telephones, department
stores, etc.
– Immigrants (poor)
The Urban Frontier
• New Problems with emergence of Cities
– Waste (wrappers on products)
– Pollution
– Impure water
– Sanitation
– Slums
– Danger = wealthy head to suburbs
• Before building codes: Chicago fire of 1871
• Little government (corrupt)
New Immigration
“Old Immigrants”
• 1840s-1860s
• 2 Million/ decade
• British isles/Western Europe
– Germany/Ireland/Chinese
• Reasons for coming
No land
No food
Religious freedom
No jobs
• Now accepted by Americans
“New Immigrants”
• 1880-early 20th century
• 5 Million/ decade
• Southern/Eastern Europe
– Italians, Jews, Greeks, Poles,
• Reasons for Coming
– Same as “Old” immigrants
• Resented by Americans and
“Old” immigrants
– “Nativist” FEARS
New Immigrants
• Tried to preserve their own culture in America
– Parochial Schools
– Newspapers
– Restaurants
– Social Clubs
– Lived together (EX: “Little Italy”)
City Movement
• The American Government was not
ready for city movement (very little
• “Unofficial Government”- job to
assimilate immigrants into
American society
– Led by bosses like NY’s Boss Tweed
(corrupt: Tammany Hall)
• Traded jobs/services for votes
City Movement
• These corrupt gov’s would ignite social
campaign again in US.
– “social gospel”: churches job to tackle social issues
of the day.
– Settlement Houses: offered schooling, counseling
to cope with city-life, child-care and cultural
activities. (EX: Hull House by Jane Addams)
– “Gospel of Wealth”
City Movement
• New Opportunities for Women
– More work/opportunity = social/economic
– Black Women: domestic work
– Native born whites: social work, telephone
operators, secretaries, store clerks, etc
– Immigrants: cluster in particular industry by race
Narrowing the Welcome Mat
• Anti-Foreignism “nativism” is aroused again
(new immigrants)
• FEAR = Outbreed and Outvoted by
• Americans blamed immigrants for…
– Shady urban governments
– Low wages
– Philosophy (Socialism, Communism, Anarchism)
Narrowing the Welcome Mat
• Anti-Immigrant organizations form
1. American Protective Association (APA) 1887
Urged voting against anything foreign
2. Labor Unions = anti-immigrants
If American industry is entitled protection (tariff) why
not American workers?
Narrowing the Welcome Mat
• Congress takes Action…
1. 1882 banned paupers, criminals and convicts
2. 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act: Chinese banned
3. 1885 Prohibited foreign workers under contract
(usually below avg. wage)
Did Americans believe this?
• “Give me your tired, your
Your huddled masses
yearning to breathe free,
the wretched refuse of your
teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless,
tempest-tossed, to me:
I lift my lamp beside the
golden door. “
Churches Confront the Urban
• “Social Gospel” –churches job to fix
social problems of the day
– D.L. Moody (Urban revival movement)
– Religious affiliated organization arise
• “Gospel of Wealth”- claimed God
caused the righteous to prosper
– What is wrong with this thought?
– How are they judging monetary
Darwin Disrupts the Church
• Charles Darwin- An English naturalist
who proposed the theory of evolution.
– Evolution- belief that higher forms of life
slowly evolve from lower forms.
• Natural Selection- nature blindly chose what
would survive.
Lust for Learning
• During this time we see an increase public
education. Educational success= new mindset
– A free government cannot function successfully if
the people are ignorant (EX: urban governments)
Lust for Learning
– 1870s state are making grade school compulsory
(helped check child labor)
– By 1900 = 6,000 high schools
– Free textbooks (taxpayers)
– Parochial schools increase with new immigrants
– 1870-1900 illiteracy drops from 20% to 10.7%
• Schools = success
Education for African Americans
• The South lagged behind in public education
Civil War
Spread out society
Most schools for higher education in North = no
• African Americans suffered the most
– 44% illiterate!
Education for African Americans
• Question: How do African Americans gain the
rights/equality of other Americans?
Education for African Americans
• Booker T. Washington = champion of
black education.
– BELIEF: economic independence was the
ticket to black political and civil rights.
• Founded Tuskegee Institute (1881)
– African American institute for
• GOAL: to gain self-respect and economic
Education for African Americans
• W.E.B Du Bois- American
sociologist/civil rights leader.
– From Mass. (never really saw racism)
– BELIEF: demanded complete equality
for African Americans.
• “talented tenth”- should be given full
and immediate access to American life.
– Helped found the National Association for
the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) in 1909
Hallowed Halls of Ivy
• Colleges
after Civil War
– Increased belief in education = success
– Cities = white collar work
– Medicine on the rise
– Philanthropy
– Morrill Act 1862
• Provided land grants for state supported schools
– EX: Ohio State, California, Texas A&M
Hallowed Halls of Ivy
• Educational opportunity increased for African
Americans and Women
– By 1880 1 of 3 college graduates were women
March of the Mind
• Up to this point colleges were mainly for
religious training (theology)
• Reasons for traditional curriculum changing…
– Darwin’s new ideas (said science and religion
didn’t go together)
– Industrialization- need for “practical” courses and
specialized vocational training in sciences.
– Elective System- students choose courses
– New Professions- medicine, white collar work, etc.
Appeal to the Press
• With a more educated population a new
market arises.
– Books, newspapers, and magazines
– Linotype (1885)- made the printing of material
quicker and cheaper (1 man job)
– Libraries begin being built
• All over not just NE
• Philanthropist donate money
Appeal to the Press
• A new type of journalism arises = “yellow
– Relies on sensationalism and exaggeration to attract
• The WOW factor
• There is no need for it to be TRUE
• Joseph Pulitzer (NY World)
• William Randolph Hearst (San Francisco Examiner)
• This journalism is balanced out by the formation of
the Associated Press, which brought validity to
Families and Women in the City
• Urban life = hard on families (work)
– Trends:
• Isolation- new stresses
– ERA OF DIVORCE is launched
• New work habits
– Went from a farming society to a industrial society
• New family sizes
– Families in country = larger (had to get work done)
– Families in the city= smaller (more mouths to feed)
» Birth control hits the market
Families and Women in the City
• Women
– More social/economic opportunity =
• Jobs
• Nightlife