world cities - bankstowntafehsc

•World Cities
•Mega Cities
•Urban Dynamics including case studies of
-a large city (Sydney)
- suburb (research project)
- large regional centres and country towns
A world city is….
• Defined as a large city that has outstripped its national
urban network….it has become part of an international
global system….it is a centre of:
• (a) political power
• (b) world trade and communication
• (c) a leader in banking and finance
• (d) attracts world stage, entertainment and sporting
• (e) HQ non-government and TNC’s
• (f) major tourist destination
• (g) are the command and control centres in the
borderless domain of the new global economy
Why have world cities developed?
• The emergence of world cities is the
product of the GLOBALISATION of
economic activity
…..this has steadily been occurring since
humans started moving across the increased with the industrial
revolution….then after World War 2….
• Globalisation is the process of global
economic and cultural integration…….
The Character of World Cities
• The control and command centres in the
network of cities in the global economy
• Centres for most leading global markets in
finance, banking, commodities
• Sites for the concentration of corporate HQ and
• Centres of specialised high order business
services such as accounting, advertising, law
and property development
• Sites where most leading NGO’s,
Intergovernmental organisations, trade and
professional organisations are found.
• Are prestigious locations for entertainment,
affluent lifestyle and housing
• Attractive places to live for highly specialised
and highly paid elite workers in the corporate
head offices, businesses and financial services
• Are major transport hubs
• Are key locations for major media, fashion,
design and film organisations.
• Are concentrations for the electronic exchange
of information together with the infrastructure to
support this exchange
• Are major tourist centres
Reasons for the rise of World Cities
Since the 1950’s there has been an acceleration in the growth of world cities –due to:
1. Technology – improvements in transport and communication eg.
Rise of container shipping, refrigerated transport, satellite
technology, the PC, mobile phones, blackberries, email, wireless
communication and demise of the telegraph, telex, typewriter and
land line
2. Deregulation of financial markets – money can move electronically
across borders easily
3. Emergence of Transnational corporations (TNC’s) eg. Unilever,
News Limited.
4. New ways of organising business operations eg. outsourcing or
moving labour intensive manufacturing off-shore to low cost
developing countries
5. Emergence of new information based forms of economic activity
eg. Investment capital, equities, bonds, foreign exchange, futures
6. Reduction of trade barriers and tariffs (taxes) between countries
to allow easier movement of goods between countries
Spatial Pattern
• World cities are large urbanised areas with extensive links globally,
nationally and locally in all aspects of its economy
• These cities have between 1 and 20 million people
• These cities are classified according to their economic power into a
hierarchy from dominant world cities, major world cities to secondary
world cities then national and sub national cities.
• Dominant world cities are NY, London and Tokyo
• Major world cities include: Paris, Los Angeles, Munich
• Secondary world cities include: Sydney, Hong Kong, Seattle and
Sao Paulo
• Sydney is Australia’s only world city with most of the headquarters of
businesses located in Sydney; it has a high ranking futures and
stock exchange and major international gateway
• Within the global network are several subsystems including :
Asia – Tokyo-Singapore-Hong Kong; North America – NY, Chicago
and LA; Western Europe – London, Paris, Rome;
Examples of the globalisation
of markets, finance, culture,
communication, transport,
Examples of Globalisation of
culture and economy
Coca Cola
Big Brother
Australian Idol
Matrix and Superman movies
Fox Studios
Daily Telegraph
Price Waterhouse Coopers
Nestle (chocolate and food company)
Dominance and Dependence
• Some urban places exert dominance over other
• Other urban centres rely upon more powerful
urban centres for:
• (a) material wellbeing
• (b) goods and services they need
• (c) investment
• (d) information
• (e) culture
• (f) income
The Global Economic Crisis
• A good example of the power of
• Financial sector in USA source of bad
loans affected stock market, investment in
jobs and capital goods has spread globally
resulting in large companies/banks such
as Ford and General Motors (USA)
moving to bankruptcy and retrenching staff
in Australia – global finance and decision
The Internet and Technology
• Global changes in technology is bringing
about huge changes in all areas of our life
and changing traditional publishing,
television, music and communication...with
instant dowloads, digital media, decline of
print media