William Hachten

Interview #545
HACHTEN, William A. (1924- )
Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication; Director, School of Journalism and Mass
At UW: 1959-1989
Interviewed: 1996
Interviewer: Steve Vaughn
Length: 5 hours, 54 minutes
Background and family histories; Journalism studies in high school and at Stanford
University; University of California at Berkeley and military service; New York
Giants; Newspaper work and technology; Graduate study at the University of
Minnesota; J. Edward Gerald and Ralph Casey; Graduate study at the University of
California at Los Angeles; Newspaper work in California; UW School of
Journalism in the 1960s; Radicalization on campus and the effects of Watergate;
Relations with the Department of Communication Arts; Harold “Bud” Nelson;
Evidence of program’s decline; Tenure as director; Changes in tenure
requirements; Research and travel.
Index by:
M. Crawford Young
M. Crawford Young
1 hour, 14 minutes
Abstract: In his 25 February 2013 interview with Crawford Young, William Hachten
reviewed his education at Stanford University and UC-Berkeley during WWII. He
became a naval officer, serving briefly at the close of the war. He played college
football, then briefly for the New York Giants. After a short newspaper career, he
pursued graduate study at UCLA and University of Minnesota. He joined the UW
School of Journalism and Mass Communication in 1959, specializing in international
communication. Encouraged by the African Studies Program, he developed an African
specialization, doing field research in several African countries. Hachten worked on
freedom of the press issues, as well as the press and apartheid in South Africa.
Key Words: Stanford; California-Berkeley; Minnesota; New York Giants; journalism;
mass communications; African media; freedom of press.
First Interview Session (July 10, 1996): Tapes 1-2
William A. Hachten (#545)
Tape 1, Side 1
WH was born in Wichita, Kansas. He discussed his genealogy, starting with his
paternal grandfather. His paternal grandparents originally emigrated from
Germany and eventually settled in Nebraska.
John Hachten married Eloise in Grand Island, NE in 1885. They had 8 children in 9
years, but they never got along well. John left her and went to Denver, and Eloise
took the children to Omaha. WH’s father started working in a meat packing plant at
the age of 12.
WH’s father and his older uncle came under the tutelage of “Patty McGraw,” who
taught them how to buy cattle. His father was transferred to Witchita, where WH
was born in 1924. They then moved to Omaha, Salt Lake City, and then Las
Angeles (ca. 1928). He had 3 brothers.
His mother’s family came from Northern Ireland. They were Scotch-Irish and came
from County Down. His mother was born in Omaha in 1892.
WH discussed the history of the Scotch-Irish in America.
He discussed his family’s religious persuasions. His grandmother, Eloise, was a
strong personality in the family. She became a Christian Scientist. In 1934, around
time of the polio scare, WH’s younger brother, Ray, came down with polio. Eloise
told the doctors to leave, but WH’s father uncharacteristically disagreed with her
and let the doctors care for Ray. Eloise left for Boston after this event.
WH and his brothers were very interested in athletics. He discussed his life in Los
Angeles during the 1930s. The reason L.A. sprawled was because of the electric
street cars. These “red cars” created a de-centralization. Kids would hitch-hike to
Huntington Beach and Santa Monica.
Football was the big sport in California at the time. Baseball was a low priority
sport, because there were not any major league teams in L.A. at the time.
WH played football in fall and track in spring during his high school years. The
game “Over-the-Line” (aka Indian-ball) was a version of baseball that they would
occasionally play. WH was a shot putter in track, and play tackle in football. He
hurt his knee in his senior year of high school, but still played 6 or 7 more season of
William A. Hachten (#545)
WH explained how he became interested in academics. His cousins and older
brother were his academic role models. The cousins graduated from USC. He also
had a Latin teacher and Social Studies/Economics teacher who were intellectually
stimulating through his high school years.
End of side
Tape 1, Side 2
WH discussed the development of his interest in journalism. His uncle, Arthur
Hachten, was a reporter who worked for the Christian Science Monitor and later for
William Randolph Hearst. He covered stories on Herbert Hoover in South
America. He was the “glamorous newspaper man.” Arthur was heavily involved
with Washington D.C., but was a staunch Republican and opposed to Roosevelt.
His cousin, Dick, who studied journalism at USC, was also an influence. So, when
WH started college, he expected to go into journalism. He was admitted to go to
Stanford for college, but he had to pass a reading comprehension test to get in
because of a bad grade in a senior year journalism class in high school. He talked
about getting a USC scholarship, but deciding to go to Stanford because he felt that
it would be more intellectually stimulating. He was also able to get a grant-in-aid,
which was crucial, because he couldn’t have paid for college, otherwise.
He wanted to play football at Stanford, as well as learn about journalism. USC
would get more players than it could use, so WH was afraid he would be benched
for most games if he went there. Stanford had a small journalism program, so
freshmen couldn’t take journalism classes. WH knew he would be drafted. He
joined the ROTC program his first quarter, but withdrew after that quarter
WH entered the Navy-Marine office reserve program, B-12. The Navy targeted and
recruited a lot of athletes. In July of ’43 they started the program, but Stanford
opposed the program. So, students in the program were transferred to Berkeley.
WH completed his sophomore and junior years while at Berkeley. He started in
journalism, but Berkeley had a very small journalism program, and the classes
weren’t very good.
He majored in philosophy. Berkeley had a first rate philosophy program, and the
classes were small because of the war. He took enough courses in journalism
during his senior year (back at Stanford, after the war) that he had enough credits to
declare it as his major, so he did. He also took many political science classes.
WH discussed the chronology of his disjointed college career. He recounted a story
about a football game around 1944, and then being sent to Paris Island.
William A. Hachten (#545)
WH described his military service. After training at Paris Island, his unit began
preparing for an invasion of Japan. Training lasted 2 months and Roosevelt died
around that time. The European campaign was already over.
WH was commissioned in July and was sent to Camp Pendleton, the big staging
area for the Asian campaign. The war ended before he saw action. WH discussed
the reaction to using the nuclear bomb to end the war. He talked about the Battle of
Okinawa and General MacArthur.
End of side. End of tape.
Tape 2, Side 1
After the war he was transferred to the El Toro military base where he met Elroy
Hirsch. Many other collegiate and professional football players also were stationed
at the base. The military base had its own football team.
As the U.S. started pulling out of Asia, many well-known football players came
through El Toro. There weren’t many black players that came through at that time.
In April 1946, he was discharged and returned to Stanford. WH continued to play
football for Stanford after returning from military duty.
He discussed the type of protection they wore on the football field. It was mostly
leather, and there were no face guards. WH played both offense and defense during
the games.
He described his career as a professional football player with the New York Giants.
He had made All-American at Berkeley. WH recounted a story about watching a
Cubs game in L.A. and meeting a coach to sign his contract for the Giants.
In the fall of 1947, he played for the Giants. WH began working as a newspaper
writer after being cut from the Giants in 1948. He discusses a bicycle trip around
Europe. WH outlines his work at the small town paper.
End of side. End of tape.
Second Interview Session (July 16, 1996): Tape 3
Tape 3, Side 1
WH described the technology of newspaper production in the mid-1950s. He
William A. Hachten (#545)
discussed the use of the linotype, teletype, and photography.
He left the paper after only six months and traveled around Europe. Upon returning,
he began working for the Los Angeles Examiner.
WH commented on the newspaper business in Los Angeles during this period and
discusses William Randolph Hearst. It was a well-produced paper, but it was
focused too much on celebrity.
WH explained why he decided to return to graduate school and why he chose to
attend the University of Minnesota (UM). He applied to UW but never received an
answer to his application. WH outlined the graduate program at UM and describes
some of his course work.
He listed faculty members at UM who most influenced him which included J.
Edward Gerald.
WH also worked as an administrative assistant for Ralph Casey. He described the
nature of departmental qualifying exams.
WH discussed how he chose his dissertation topic.
He described his arrival at UW.
End of side.
Tape 3, Side 2
WH described a trip to Europe he took in 1950.
He discussed his graduate work in a one year Master’s program at the University of
California at Los Angeles.
WH described the program and course work, including a class taught by Franklin
Fearing. He discussed other faculty and courses.
WH wrote a master’s thesis on sports pages.
After completing the Master’s program in 1952, WH worked for the Long Beach
Press Telegraph covering the local sports.
He described how he met his wife. She was on the UCLA faculty. They were
married in August of 1952. He explained why he left Long Beach to work for the
William A. Hachten (#545)
Santa Monica Outlook. WH discussed his wife’s background.
End of side. End of tape.
Third Interview Session (July, 20 1996): Tapes 4-5
Tape 4, Side 1
WH described the journalism program at UW during the 1960s. He outlined the
major areas of study including public relations and advertising.
WH explained the controversy over having an advertising program within a
journalism department. At UW, there was a split on campus as to whether
advertising should be in the Department of Journalism or Business.
He described how the school expanded during the 1960s, with particular emphasis
on the graduate program.
WH discussed the beginnings and rapid growth of international communications as
an area of graduate study.
WH discussed Jack M. McCleod and Steven Chaffee. He described the School of
Journalism during the directorship of Harold “Bud” Nelson. He discussed
competition between Scott Cutlip and Bud Nelson for the directorship of the
WH noted that journalism graduate students and faculty were not as radical as those
in other departments such as history and political science. He described the process
of radicalization on campus.
WH talked about outside influences on mass communications research during this
period. The Land Tenure Center was fairly radical, and wrote about the need for
land reform in Latin America. WH talked about changes to university curriculum
during the 60s.
He discussed the construction of Vilas Hall and addresses the myths and rumors
regarding its design.
End of side.
Tape 4, Side 2
William A. Hachten (#545)
WH explained the differences between the fields of Communications Arts and
Journalism and Mass Communications. They tried to stay separate, but the lines
became blurred in some areas, such as broadcasting. There had been an effort to
call Vilas Communication Hall the “Vilas Communication Arts Building,” which
had upset the Journalism & Mass Comm. Department.
He evaluated the tenure of Bud Nelson as director of the School of Journalism. WH
gave the advantages of having a department accredited by a national organization.
WH talked about the recruitment of high school students for the Journalism
Department in the late ‘50s through the mid-‘60s. WH weighed the evidence
suggesting that the UW Journalism School is in decline.
The discussion turns back to the importance of accreditation for the School of
Journalism. “Bud” Nelson was a strong supporter of the process of accreditation.
Because UW is outside of accreditation, they are no longer invited to conferences
by accredited schools, and it has hurt UW’s image and reputation.
He talked about attempts to improve relations between the School and local media,
including the Mass Communication Research Center. WH chronicled the loss of
contact between journalism faculty and local professional journalists.
End of side. End of tape.
Tape 5, Side 1
WH talked about Nelson’s legacy and leadership. He described the problems with
over emphasizing research and the lack of preparation of students for the profession
of reporting.
He discussed Percy Tannenbaum. PT didn’t believe in journalism education, he just
believed in communications.
[Audio distortion, continues to the end of the tape.]
End of side. End of tape.
Fourth Interview Session (September 4, 1996): Tape 6
Tape 6, Side 1
WH was director of the School of Journalism from 1975-80. He described the
responsibilities associated with the directorship. He discussed the removal of the
William A. Hachten (#545)
assistant director position. One of the biggest challenges he faced was advocating
for the students.
He discussed the rapid growth in undergraduate enrollment in journalism. WH
described the impact of Watergate on enrollments and the discipline in general. The
movie, All The President’s Men, glamorized media and journalism.
WH discussed how candidates who possess strong professional backgrounds, yet
lack advanced degrees, often had difficulty gaining tenure.
He described the rising emphasis on research and the decline of public service and
extension activities. In WH’s early days, the journalism students would have
“weekend excursions” (banquets, football games, etc.) with weekly newspaper
editors from around the state. This was a good PR opportunity for the university.
These functions faded away around the early ‘80s.
He outlined a continuing departmental problem in finding people to teach public
relations courses. WH discussed Scott Cutlip’s approach to public relations.
Generally speaking, the school’s faculty was well-balanced. WH discussed the
academic background of the faculty and the increasing diversity of disciplines.
Then, there were a lot of faculty retirements among the more professional
End of side.
Tape 6, Side 2
In 1977, the school hosted the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass
Communications (AEJMC). WH outlined the benefits associated with hosting such
an event. It was well attended.
WH suggested ways to improve the national standing of the School of Journalism
and Mass Communication and he put special emphasis on improving contacts and
relations with the media and alumni. WH described an annual lecture series funded
by alumni contributions.
He explained his research interests and describes his publications, including The
Supreme Court on Freedom of the Press: Decisions and Dissents and Muffled
Drums: The News Media in Africa.
WH described his research on, and travels to, South Africa, India, Hong Kong and
William A. Hachten (#545)
He discussed the current state of journalism education, especially the conflicts
between educators and professionals.
End of side. End of tape.
Second Interview Session (25 February 2013):
Digital File
Start of Interview/Interviewer’s Introduction
Question: What was your family background? Any special experiences or
school influences shaping your future career? Answer: His father came from a
family of German immigrants who landed in Omaha, where he worked in a packing
house from the age of 12. He later became a cattle buyer, which led to a family
move to Los Angeles in 1929, where WH went to school. His first interest in
journalism stems from a paternal uncle who was a successful journalist working for
the Hearst newspapers, serving in the Washington bureau. Reading the Los
Angeles Examiner, the family watched for his byline. William Hachten (WH)
admired his success, and was attracted to a journalist career.
Question: How did you decide on Stanford for undergraduate study? Answer:
Football played a role; WH was a successful player in high school. Southern
California offered a football scholarship, but had low academic standing at the
time. Football helped for admission to Stanford, which provided a grant-in-aid for
the first year; players also had the opportunity to earn money working in food
service. Stanford was already a very good university, though not as prestigious
and affluent as it has subsequently become. Its endowment was largely linked to
the Southern Pacific Railway, hard hit by the depression. But the academic
quality was good, with many smart students. However, it was hard to flunk out; as
long as students paid tuition, they could continue to accumulate credits. At the
time a directory was published, listing all students, their grade point averages and
numbers of credits.
Question: Your Stanford years coincided with World War II. Was your
education interrupted by military service? Answer: In the fall of 1942, the draft
was about to become universal, and everyone scrambled to get into a reserve unit.
Stanford did not have one, because its President, Ray Lyman Wilbur, believed no
undergraduates should be drafted. WH joined a Navy-Marines V12 unit at
University of California-Berkeley, where he was enrolled for four semesters,
continuing academic work there while following Marine training. The only
required course was in Physics, a very difficult subject; failing the course led to
immediate drafting for active service. In the end, the professor gave the entire
class C grades. Academically Berkeley was excellent, with small classes. While
William A. Hachten (#545)
there he majored in philosophy rather than journalism. In 1944 his V12 group was
sent for boot camp to Camp Pendleton near San Diego for a year of training,
leading to commissioning as a Marine lieutenant in July 1945. He later learned the
300 in his training group were earmarked as replacements following the scheduled
invasion of Japan, averted by the nuclear bomb.
Question: You then returned to Stanford to complete your degree? Answer:
WH spent one additional year at Stanford, earning his BA in 1947.
Question: Did you resume your football career at Stanford? Answer: WH had
played on the California team for the two years in the V12 program there. Along
with six other players, he returned to play a final season at Stanford.
Question: You then had a brief career in the National Football League? Answer:
WH was drafted by the New York Giants, who offered $6,000, plus a signing bonus
of $1,500. The Stanford coach advised that the offer was too good to decline; for
WH, the money at the time seemed like a very large amount. He played for the
Giants in 1947, then returned for the training camp in 1948. To his dismay, he was
cut, the only job he ever lost. Although WH was very disappointed at the time, in
retrospect he was grateful that his football career ended at that point. His Stanford
Chair, Chick Bush (a UW alum), got him a job with a small paper in Santa Paula,
Question: Though at the time you had no graduate study plans, you soon after
enrolled in a UCLA MA program? Answer: After a couple of years at Santa
Paula, WH took an extended bicycle trip with a friend around Europe, which
awakened a strong international interest. This continued during the UCLA
program and thereafter.
Question: What beats did you have as reporter? Answer: Though initially WH
worked as a reporter in Santa Paula, the belief was that the way to move up in the
newspaper world was through the copy desk rather than reporting. WH served on
the copy desk of his next job with the Long Beach Press-Telegram, then the Santa
Monica Outlook. He next won a copy desk post at the Los Angeles Examiner, one
of two large LA dailies, then later on the Minneapolis Star.
Question: Why did you seek graduate work at UCLA? Answer: At the time,
WH was still intending a journalism career. His future wife Harva was teaching at
UCLA at the time; they knew each other as Stanford undergraduates, and married
in the year WH received his MA in 1952. Newspaper work did not pay very well
at the time, and there were only a small number of well-remunerated positions at
the top of the pyramid. Thus after a decade or so many journalists began looking
around for other opportunities, in fields like public relations. Also at the time
William A. Hachten (#545)
doctoral programs in mass communications were taking hold in universities like
Minnesota, Illinois, Wisconsin, Stanford and to some extent Iowa.
Question: Journalism schools at the time were primarily oriented to vocational
training? Answer: That was the pattern, but changes were taking place aimed at
incorporating a social science perspective, as implied by the title change from
journalism schools to departments of mass communications. A leader in this trend
was William Bleyer at Wisconsin, who had great influence in the field, trained
leaders like Bush at Stanford, and Ralph Casey at Minnesota.
Question: How did you get to Minnesota for doctoral study? Answer: WH was
attracted to advanced study emerging field of mass communication. He thought of
Stanford, but the program there was highly statistical and quantitative. The
approach at Minnesota was more congenial. During the summers, he worked on
the copy desk of the Minneapolis Star.
Question: How were you hired at Wisconsin in 1959, two years before
completion of your doctorate? Answer: His advisor, Ray Nixon, an international
specialist, called Ralph Nafziger, then Journalism School head at Wisconsin, to let
him know that WH was a very promising doctoral candidate. Nafziger invited him
down to Madison, and conducted the interview; WH was also interviewed by L&S
Dean Mark Ingraham, who then met with all candidates. Nafziger then personally
typed the letter of appointment; there was no search committee, and the chair at that
time could make the decisions himself. Hiring procedures later became much
more formalized. His doctorate was completed in 1961; for two years WH had
instructor status.
Question: How did you make contact with African Studies? Answer: Both the
earlier bicycle trip and Minnesota study had strengthened an interest in
international journalism. When WH came to Madison, he was interested in
teaching in this field, but at the time Nafziger, a few years from retirement, taught
the course in international communication. His colleague Scott Cutlip had good
contacts with the History Department, and introduced him to Philip Curtin and Jan
Vansina, then active in launching an African Studies Program. Curtin, anxious to
have a mass communications specialist for the Program, encouraged WH to
develop an African specialization. WH was very impressed with the institutional
flexibility that facilitated the development of new programs. The Ford Foundation
had just given a $4 million grant for development of international studies.
Question: I recollect you audited my African politics course the first semester I
taught at UW in 1963. How did that happen? Answer: Curtin suggested that
WH audit several Africa-related courses to obtain a basic competence in the field,
and provided a semester leave to pursue this goal. In addition to African politics,
William A. Hachten (#545)
WH audited Africa-related courses in history, geography and anthropology.
Curtin then arranged a further leave semester for a study trip to Africa, urging WH
to include both French and English-speaking countries on the itinerary. WH and
Harva then visited a half-dozen countries, including Kenya, Tanzania, South
Africa, Nigeria, Ivory Coast and Senegal.
Question: How did this lead to Africa-focused course offerings? Answer:
There were already a pair of courses and a seminar in international
communications. WH introduced a course and seminar in mass media in
developing nations, with a focus on Africa.
Question: You had a number of African students? Answer: WH had 12
African M.A. students, and five doctorals, not all African. Many were interested
in journalism, and his early book MUFFLED DRUMS on African mass media
attracted interest.
Question: Did you gather material for MUFFLED DRUMS on your first trip?
Answer: No, the research took place in 1968. At the African Studies Association
annual meetings, WH discovered that a recent winner of a Fulbright award was
unable to use the award, and he was able to win the grant. His wife and two
children accompanied him on a research trip to a number of African countries, both
francophone and anglophone. His research methods were not sophisticated, but he
found in each country that the press officer with the Embassy provided helpful
information and contacts. At the time, one required visas and official permission
to conduct the research; some fields were sensitive, with anthropologists driven to
call themselves sociologists, but journalism was less subject to suspicion. Harva
was a very helpful companion; as an experienced journalist, she was an effective
interviewer. Also, she spoke French which WH did not; thus she was invaluable
in Ivory Coast and Senegal. As well, she used the research trip to gather
information on African cooking, collecting recipes and talking with food
specialists. This led to her successful book on African cuisine, KITCHEN
SAFARI. Unfortunately, the publisher did not keep the book on the market very
long; in about six months they found it remaindered at Barnes & Noble.
Question: Your interest in press freedom in Africa seems to grow out of your first
WH had studied constitutional law with Harold Chase during his doctoral study at
Minnesota. He minored in political science, which required passing examinations
in two sub-fields. He chose political behavior and constitutional law.
Question: What was the background to your book, THE PRESS AND
Answer: In 1974 WH was invited to lecture at Rhodes University in
William A. Hachten (#545)
Grahamstown, South Africa, at the commemoration of a monument to the 1820s
settlers. He made connections with Anthony Gifford, then on the Rhodes staff,
who became his co-author. Gifford then pursued a doctorate at the University of
Washington, and remained on its faculty.
Question: Your book, WORLD NEWS PRISM, first published in 1981, seems to
have achieved immortality through multiple editions? Answer: Initially
published by Iowa State University Press, the university publisher soon ran into
financial difficulties. The publication rights were sold to John Wiley Publishers,
along with those for MUFFLED DRUMS. WORLD NEWS PRISM is now in its
9th edition; it has been an effective text on global media. The contents are
regularly changed so that the material is always fresh, recently incorporating
material on technological changes, and containing current regional chapters.
After retirement Wiley wanted a co-author on active duty; thus James Scotton (UW
alumnus) was recruited as collaborator for subsequent editions. WH spoke of his
particular interest in South Africa; in 1978 USIA invited him to provide a short
course in journalism to a group of black South African journalists, which proved a
particularly rewarding experience. None of them had the opportunity for
professional training, and they were enthusiastic participants in the course.
Question: Any other noteworthy experiences in Africa? Answer: In 1985,
USIA invited WH, with Harva accompanying, to meet with journalists in Sudan.
When they arrived in Khartoum, there had just been a coup ousting dictator Jaafar
Nimeiri, and there was no real government in power. They arrived about 2 a.m.,
and the USIA hosts failed to appear to escort them through the airport customs and
immigration. WH was carrying a bottle of scotch; when their USIA hosts
appeared the next morning, they were horrified to learn WH had openly brought
liquor in, and astonished they had not been stopped; Nimeiri had recently ordered
all the alcohol that could be located dumped into the Nile. They did meet with
some Ministry of Information officials and journalists, but word of death threats
against Americans led the visit to be foreshortened, skipping the scheduled stops in
Omdurman and some other localities.
Question: How did the School of Journalism and Mass Communications
function? Any strengths or weaknesses to note? Answer: WH found the
Department a very congenial environment. There was a good balance between
professional journalism and social science. The latter group included some
distinguished colleagues such as Jack McLeod and Steve Chaffee. There was on
occasion some friction between the quantifiers and those of more traditional bent.
Ralph Nafziger was a wonderful leader; he groomed Bud Nelson as his successor,
and WH followed as Director from 1975 to 1980. The School was one of the
leaders in its field.
William A. Hachten (#545)
Question: What about your participation in the African Studies Program?
Answer: WH was particularly active in the early years when the Program was
getting started. He enjoyed the meetings, which took place around a table in a
corner of Tripp Commons. In the beginning, Curtin, Vansina, Fred Simoons
(Geography), and Aristide Zolberg (Political Science) attended. Other early
members were Wilfred Whiteley, a British Swahili specialist, and A.C. Jordan,
linguist from South Africa. WH recalled Whiteley recounting a 1964 experience
in Tanzania; an army mutiny took place and British troops intervened. While
Whiteley was walking down a Dar es Salaam street, he encountered a British
soldier who requested that Whiteley instruct any African soldiers he saw to return
at once to barracks. Although WH was not involved in collaborative work, the
sense of camaraderie in the African Studies Program at the time was very strong.
Question: Involvement in UNESCO project for a “New World Information
Order”? Answer: The vigorous debate over the New World Information Order
extended over several years. Western journalists viewed the initiative as imposing
press censorship, or “Muffled Drums”, and protested the scheme. Cold war
politics were involved, with the Soviet bloc promoting the project. His colleague
John McNally and he made fruitful use of the proposal as a subject of class debate
to illuminate issues of freedom of the press.
Question: Any other international experiences of note? Answer: About the time
that WH was developing his Africa specialization, he was invited by Ralph
Nafziger to assist in the organization of a month workshop for third world
journalists in Berlin at the Institute for Mass Media in the Developing Nations.
Two Egyptian journalists took part, sent by Nasser; the organizers learned that the
pair were reporting back to Soviets in East Berlin on the course content. Years
later, WH discovered through the investigations into CIA activities of the
congressional Church Commission that the Institute for Mass Media in the
Developing Nations was funded through the Hobby Foundation in Houston, a CIA
Question: Anything to add on your activities since retirement in 1989? Answer:
With a journalist background, the tendency is to focus on the present; soon WH felt
he was losing touch with African affairs, and could no longer write on the subject.
He kept busy on a number of projects, and he wrote a small book on criticisms of
the press, but difficulties walking made it hard to get to attend events or meetings
on campus.
End of Interview
End of Interview #545