Canadian Geography 1202 UNIT 2 NATURAL AND HUMAN SYSTEMS Students are expected to know how natural and human systems interact. More specifically students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. Identify and describe natural systems Identify and describe human systems Explain how systems thinking maybe be used to understand the interaction between human and natural systems NATURAL SYSTEMS A natural system is one that is created by nature. It is not artificial Earth’s natural systems maybe divided into four spheres: 1. 2. 3. 4. Atmosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere ATMOSPHERE Atmosphere refers to the gases surrounding our planet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6jIMkPwa hQ LITHOSPHERE Lithosphere is the crust and uppermost part of the earth’s surface. It is made of tectonic plates Examples include lava, rocks and soil HYDROSPHERE Hydrosphere is the water of the earth’s surface https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6y18NaL O2g&index=6&list=PLZ6BtLkOU0h4qq3mMAJ7 Zm9WeNTRM48KK BIOSPHERE Biosphere is all the living systems on the earth, including humans, plants and animals LET’S MAP Let’s take our four natural systems and place them on a concept map Natural Systems Map Atmosphere Lithosphere Natural Systems Hydrosphere Biosphere Take some natural things and place them in the correct system PLACE IT IN THE NATURAL SYSTEM Moose Wind Smog Soil Ozone layer Fog Stream Atlantic Ocean Bear Grass Northern lights Lava Rain Trees Rocks Snow Clouds Ground Lightning Fox Lake Mink River Mud VIDEO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BnpF0ndXk8 QUESTIONS… Is one natural system more important than another? Can one natural system have an impact on another? Explain NATURAL SYSTEMS AND CONNECTIONS Rank the natural systems Which do you think is the most important? Why? Natural systems are connected Natural systems interact with each other SYSTEMS THINKING What is a system? A system is a series of interrelated parts that connect and work together to form a whole WHY ARE SYSTEMS IMPORTANT? It is important to study systems because the systems on earth shape the environment in which we live Two categories of systems: Natural Human SYSTEMS THAT OCCUR IN NATURE Systems that occur in nature Circulation of water in the ocean Weather and climate Water drainage Energy cycles ***These systems form ecosystems, which make up our planet WHAT ARE ECOSYSTEMS? An ecosystem is a community of plants and animals that interact with another and their physical environment (land, climate, soil, water and nutrients). WHAT ARE HUMAN SYSTEMS? Human systems are systems created by people. They are artificial HUMAN SYSTEMS System that are created by humans include: Human settlements Transportation routes Communication systems Economics Infrastructure Energy WHY USE A SYSTEMS APPROACH? Everything is connected in a complex web of systems Help us make better decisions as we work to create safer and healthier environments. Help us to protect natural systems and to use resources so they last into the future. COMPLEX WEB OF SYSTEMS A complex set of “dynamic” systems make up our world. Dynamic May means continually changing! take millions of years for the change(oil formation) May only take a few minutes for the change (car burning gas) SYNERGY: GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS Synergy means the whole is greater than the sum Systems are dependent on one another The whole system is greater than the sum of it parts WATER (2 parts hydrogen/1 part oxygen) CAR (engine, tires, brakes) HUMAN SYSTEMS…TRANSPORTATION Transportation Systems Interconnecting network of roads, trains, air travel, shipping and cycling routes. Shopping for clothes, music, sports equipment etc. is all part of our ECONOMIC System as well as our transportation system. HUMAN SYSTEMS…COMMUNICATION Communication Systems is a fundamental to every society. Language, drawing, and writing have enabled mankind to evolve and to pass on knowledge and values. Interconnecting network of: Phone Television Radio Cell phones Internet web pages News papers HUMAN SYSTEMS-INFRASTRUCTURE The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons WATER Water is a natural substance that is essential to all known forms of life. It covers 70% of Earth's surface. THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE WATER We need water to live 2/3 of our body is water Crops and livestock require water Average Canadian uses 300 liters of water per day Add production/manufacturing it is 4000 liters WATER… Average daily residential water use per capita (litres per person): United States - 425L Canada - 326L Italy - 250L Sweden - 200L France - 150L Israel - 135L INTERACTION OF HUMAN AND NATURAL SOLUTIONS WATER POLLUTION 3 main types of water pollution: Biological Pollution Physical Pollution Chemical Pollution 1. WATER POLLUTION…BIOLOGICAL Bacteria and algae that enter lakes and rivers. Sewage from cities and towns are the largest source. Solved by reducing sewage from entering water supplies (sewage treatment plants) 2. WATER POLLUTION…PHYSICAL Least harmful but most obvious. Floating garbage, paper, tin cans etc. These are easily seen and clean-up and prevention is relatively simple. 3. WATER POLLUTION…CHEMICAL Most dangerous Dumping of poisonous chemicals into rivers and lakes Using pesticides on our lawns or pouring paint or cleaners down the drain. 3. WATER…CHEMICAL POLLUTION Clean-Up there are 2 problems: Not able to completely stop chemicals from reaching water supplies Do not have the technology to clean-up chemicals once they are in the water. POLLUTION Human health and environmental health are closely linked Example… Using pesticides on our lawns or pouring paint or cleaners down the drain all add to the toxic chemicals found in your water system Many water treatment plants cannot remove toxic waste from water VIDEOS Water Pollution: http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/envfreshwater-whycare Water/Biological/Physical Pollution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDSmJSGrC6c Chemical Pollution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vn9r4JSMGg0 CASE STUDY #1 Read pp.69-75 Do together questions 1 and 2 from “Stretch your Thinking” on Page 75 Video: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/saving-wildsalmon/ CASE STUDY #2 Handout: “Tar Sands Oil” Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkwoRivP1 7A Human activities like burning fossil fuels to run cars, trucks, factories, heat buildings, etc. have started to change the make up of gases in the atmosphere This has lead to changes in our climate systems GLOBAL WARMING!!! INTERACTION OF HUMAN AND NATURAL SYSTEMS Remember? Human activities like burning fossil fuels to run cars, trucks, factories, heat buildings, etc. have started to change the make up of gases in the atmosphere This has lead to changes in our climate systems GLOBAL WARMING!!! CANADA’S CLIMATE SYSTEMS Climate is the weather conditions of a particular region averaged over a long period of time Climate in Canada varies widely from place to place and season to season CANADA’S CLIMATE Affected by seven natural characteristics: 1. Size: 9,971,000 km2. Temps and precipitation vary. 2. Latitude: Northern country. Closer to the north pole than equator 3. Ocean Currents: Warm (Pacific) and cold currents (Atlantic) 4. Winds and Air Masses: Winds carry air masses across the country 4. Air Mass: Body of air with same temperature and moisture. High air pressure masses have high temps and clear skies. Low air pressure masses have low temps and precipitation 5. Jet Stream: Fast-moving, high altitude air moving across Canada. Divides warm and cool air. Steers weather systems. 6. Landscapes: Canada has a wide range of landforms and elevations. Elevation means cooler temperatures. Mountains create precipitation 7. Water: Slower to heat up and cool down than land. Places near large bodies of water have cool summers and milder winters VIDEO “Inconvenient Truth” 2006 Academy Award winning documentary Questions: 1. What is Al Gore’s message? 2. What does Gore suggest we do to fight global warming? 3. What is the meaning or significance of the title? http://vimeo.com/24857305 CLIMATE CHANGE Questions: 1. What is Al Gore’s message? 2. What does Gore suggest we do to fight global warming? 3. What is the meaning of the title? WIND AND AIR MASSES Huge air masses stretch across the country Major affect on our weather Winds move from high pressure to low pressure Front is a leading edge of an air mass JET STREAM Blows from west to east across the country In a curvy pattern Separates warm and cold air WHAT IS WEATHER? Daily conditions of the atmosphere in terms of heat, rain, wind, snow, sunshine, dryness, and cloud cover HOW DOES WEATHER AFFECT US? Brainstorming Activity! Recreation Work Travel Location WHAT IS CLIMATE? Climate is long-term weather patterns in a particular area COMPARE WEATHER AND CLIMATE Same? Both deal with rain, snow, sun, humidity and other atmosphere conditions Different? Weather can change in a few hours Climate change can take tens, hundreds or thousands of year to change WEATHER STATEMENTS It is sunny and 25 degrees today. The forecast calls for 10 centimetres of snow. There is a storm warning for tomorrow. The humidity today is at 85% The UV index is high for tomorrow CLIMATE STATEMENTS Deer Lake historically receives less rainfall than Corner Brook. St. John’s has a higher annual snowfall than Toronto. Halifax had its coldest winter in recorded history. Ottawa set a heat wave record this past summer. TO DO: Read pp.76-89 Questions on page 89. #’s 1-3 Worksheet: Weather and Climate CLIMATE What is a climate region? A climate region is an area that shares similar weather conditions (precipitation, warmth, wind and sun) Canada has 7 distinct climate regions. Why? Because Canada is so big Canada’s climate regions: 1. Arctic: Very cold winter, short cold summer, very dry 2. Subarctic: Cold winter, cool summer, moderate precipitation 3. Pacific: Mild winter, warm summer, heavy precipitation 4. Mountain: Temperatures and precipitation vary greatly 5. Prairie: Cold winter, hot dry summer 6. Lower Lakes: Cool winter, hot summer, moderate precipitation 7. Atlantic: Cold winter, warm summer, moderate precipitation CLIMATE GRAPHS What is a Climate Graph? Climate graphs show temperature and precipitation for a particular region QUESTIONS… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the wettest month? What is the driest? What is the warmest month? What is the coldest? What is the annual amount of precipitation? QUESTIONS…ON YOUR OWN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the wettest month? What is the dryest? What is the warmest month? What is the coldest? What is the annual amount of precipitation? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the wettest month? What is the driest? What is the warmest month? What is the coldest? What is the annual amount of precipitation? CANADA’S VEGETATION SYSTEM A vegetation system is a system of plants that are native to an area They have not been planted by people Canada’s Vegetation Regions: 1. Tundra: 2. Temperate Rainforest: 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Southern prairie Mixed Forest Most of Canada Grassland: Western Canada/BC Boreal Coniferous Forest: Pacific coast Mountain Forest: North South Ontario, Quebec and Maritimes Deciduous Southern Ontario What is a biome? A large region of the earth (i.e. rainforest or desert) which is distinct because of the plants that grow there Biomes include animals Plants in the biome are the product of the landforms and the climate Biomes correspond with latitude and longitude The farther from the equator, the less direct sunlight, and the less heat The boreal (northern) forest is the largest biome in the world! Boreal Forest: Made of coniferous (needle –pine, spruce and fir) and deciduous (leaves –birch, maple) trees Animals like moose, bears, and wolves CANADA’S BOREAL FOREST Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhe5FHbm p Read pp.90-94 CANADA’ NATURAL SYSTEMS Canada’s Water Systems: Much of the rain and snow that falls in Canada ends up in our interconnected waterways A waterway is a body of water. It includes lakes, rivers, and wetlands Wetlands are bogs, swamps or marshes Once considered wasteland One of our most important natural systems Why are wetlands important? 1. Remove contaminants from water 2. Habitat: nesting and feeding ground 3. Spawning and nursery ground for fish 4. Protect shore from erosion 5. Reservoir: store water Video: The value of wetlands http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYZUXB9JJ zE Water runoff: What is it? Water that runs over the surface of the land into rivers and lakes is called runoff Does not absorb into the ground What is groundwater? Water that filters down through layers of soil, sand and gravel Drainage basins: What is a drainage basin? An area of land that collects all water that flows into the ocean Drainage basins: About 75% of all water in Canada drains into the Arctic Ocean or Hudson Bay Water flows downhill These areas are at lower elevation Canada’s Lakes: Canada has two million lakes Great Lakes are the largest freshwater lakes in the world 21% of the earth’s surface fresh water NATURAL SYSTEMS: SOIL What is Soil? Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth’s crust. Soil is a mixture of broken rocks and minerals, living organisms, and decaying organic matter called humus Soil includes air and water. Made of layers, called profile Soil Profile: Humus is decaying matter that is dark, soft and rich in nutrients. Many different organisms live in the soil Include worms, algae, fungi and bacteria Without them, no room for plants to grow Why is Soil Important? 1. Food: we do not eat if we do not have soil 2. Oxygen: supports trees 3. Water: soaks up and purifies it Types of soils: 1. Coniferous forest 2. Mountain forest 3. Deciduous forest 4. Bog soils 5. Stony/rocky soil INTERACTION: HUMANS AND SOILS Soil quality is decreasing Farmers yields are declining Due to pesticides. Killing unwanted bugs and plants Also kills creatures that make soil function Also affect chemistry of soil and humus NATURAL AND HUMAN SYSTEMS: PESTICIDES http://www.cbc.ca/player/Radio/ID/2395667 045/ CASE STUDY #3…ON YOUR OWN Read “Water Crisis” on page 62 Answer the following questions: 1. Who are the players/stakeholders in this case study? 2. What is the problem with the water infrastructure in the case study? 3. What is the even bigger problem for the towns? What answer do they propose? 4. What actions can you take to ensure your water supply is safe and preserved?