Cultural Diversity In & Through Sport Lesson Six: Sexism and Sport This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Learning Outcomes By the end of the session you should be able to: • Describe the term sexism • Identify how sexism is manifested using sporting examples • Examine own attitudes towards sexism • Explain the consequences of prejudice and discrimination • Identify ways in which attitudes can be challenged Task: Warm Up In groups discuss the following questions: • Are certain sports more suitable for males than females and vice versa? • Are there stereotypes for males and females who play certain sports? • Why do you think fewer females play sport than males? Gender Stereotypes The culture of sport presents problems: • It is seen as male dominated • Male traits – competitive, aggressiveness, physical strength • Not feminine or ‘girly’ Task: Gender Stereotypes What do you think the stereotypes are for the following athletes?: • Male gymnast • Female rugby player • Male hockey player • Female bodybuilder Definition of Gender Discrimination • Gender discrimination is prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s gender • Attitudes, conditions, or behaviors are often based on stereotypical ideas of gender roles • Gender discrimination is not only on a person-to-person basis but can also be institutionalised • It is often associated with ‘gender supremacy’, in that one gender is better than the other Task: Sexism in the Media In groups discuss the following questions: • How does media encourage sexist attitudes? • Discuss how film, TV, newspapers and books encourage sexism • Think about male and female stereotypes and characters Sexism in the Media • Sports women continue to be underrepresented in news coverage • Often women are referred to in in a sexual or demeaning manner • Descriptors involving sports skills are often absent from descriptions of women athletes • Descriptors used for men – big, strong, brilliant – are different from those used to describe women – weary, fatigues, vulnerable Task: Sexism in Sports Coverage In groups, look at the sports section of the newspaper provided • Discuss the quantity and quality of women’s sports coverage • Consider the photographs used • What is the ratio of coverage between male and female sporting events and/or athletes Sexism in the Media • According to Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation, only 5% of all sports coverage in the media is of women’s sports • In a sports fan research survey carried out in 2012, 61% of participants would like to see more women's sports • A report by the Commission on the Future of Women's Sport found that women’s sports only gets 0.5% of all sponsorship in the UK • 61% of the female respondents in the Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation survey agreed that seeing successful sports stars encouraged them to get involved in sports Case Study: Sexism in the Media 1 Study of basketball commentators: Men’s basketball Women’s basketball 146 descriptors suggesting strength 95 descriptors suggesting strength 38 descriptors suggesting weakness 103 descriptors suggesting weakness Ratio 3.84:1 Ratio 0.92:1 Case Study: Sexism in the Media 2 Study of tennis commentators: Men’s basketball Women’s basketball 59 descriptors suggesting strength 51 descriptors suggesting strength 10 descriptors suggesting weakness 24 descriptors suggesting weakness Ratio 5.9:1 Ratio 2.1:1 Case Study: Sexism in the Media 3 Study found that in tennis, last names were used much more for men while first names were used for women • Females were referred to by first name 52.7% of the time • Males were referred to by first name 7.8% of the time Case Study: Sexism in the Media 4 • Sky Sports presenters in the UK, Andy Gray and Richard Keys were sacked for making sexist comments about a female linesman: Click here. Sexulisation of Female Athletes • Sport is still considered a masculine domain in our society. • It is very clear that the institution of sport promotes compulsory heterosexuality • Female athletes can feel a pressure to conform to a heterosexual image which is often hypersexualised. Sexulisation: Case Study • Anna Kournikova is a retired Russian professional tennis player. • She was one of the best known tennis stars in the world, yet she never won a singles title. • Most of her fame has come from the publicity surrounding her looks and her personal life. Celebrating All Athletes BBC Sports Personality of the Year Nominations made by sports editors: • In 2012, a bookmakers gave the follows odds for a male versus a female winner: – 1:2 that the winner will be male – 1:6 that the winner will be female Accessing Opportunities Women tend to have less opportunities to participate in sports: • Sport is dominated by male athletes, coaches, managers, commentators • Equipment is often designed for men; in 1996 Spalding produced the first baseball glove for women • Royal and Ancient Golf Club in Scotland lifted its longstanding ban of women playing in the Open Championship in 2005 • Women in sport receive less money than their male counterparts; Wimbledon has only offered equal price money since 2007 Men v Women’s Pay: Cricket Captain’s of England*: The difference between men & women’s pay in cricket: Women’s Team Men’s Team Name Charlotte Edwards Andrew Strauss Age 29 32 Team Kent Middlesex Earnings £35,000-£40,000 £175,000-£200,000 + bonuses * Details correct as of August 2012 Men v Women’s Pay: Football Captain’s of England*: The difference between men & women’s pay in football: Women’s Team Men’s Team Name Casey Stoney Steven Gerrard Age 30 32 Team Lincoln Ladies Liverpool Earnings £35,000-£40,000 £8.5million + bonuses * Details correct as of August 2012 Power Comments Sepp Blatter, FIFA President was asked in January 2004 how women's football could be made more popular. He said: • "Let the women play in more feminine clothes like they do in volleyball. Female players are pretty, if you excuse me for saying so, and they already have some different rules to men – such as playing with a lighter ball. That decision was taken to create a more female aesthetic, so why not do it in fashion?" Positions of Power: Case Study International Olympic Committee: • Reached their goal of having 10 % female members in 2000. • Of the 106 national Olympic committees, 5 have female presidents. • Out of the 34 international sport federations that participate in the Olympic Games, two are led by a woman. Task: Challenging Sexism • Working in groups, identify ways in which sexism can be challenged and women can be given equal opportunities Female Role Models • Two of Team GBs best female athletes, Sally Gunnell and Jessica Ennis: Click here. Women in Sport A brief overview of women’s achievements in sport through history: • • • • • • • • • 1884 - Women's singles tennis competition started at Wimbledon. 1900 - Charlotte Cooper became the first British women to win a gold medal at the Olympics 1952 – Jeannette Altwegg became the first British women to win an individual gold medal at the Winter Olympics 1960 – Anita Lonsbrough became the first female BBC Sports Personality of the Year after winning a gold medal in Rome 1964 - Mary Rand became the first British women to win an Olympic gold medal in athletics 1972 - Mary Peters won the Women's Pentathlon at the Munich Olympics 1992 - Sally Gunnel wins gold at the 1992 Olympics in the 400m hurdles in Barcelona 2004 - Dame Kelly Holmes won two gold at the Athens Olympics and Dame Tanni GreyThompson won her 11th gold Paralympics’ gold medal in Athens. 2008 - Team GB women won 7 gold medals in total at the Beijing games. A Long Way to Go BBC Sports Presenter, Gabby Logan, made a documentary in April 2012 about sexism in football: • She was reluctant to even do the documentary because: “No-one wants to look like they are moaning.” • She was shocked that “in 2012 some people have been locked out of training grounds for being a woman. • She also noted a “lack of representation at the top of the game with Karen Espelund the only female on the Uefa executive committee.” • For the full article, click here. Challenging Sexism To challenge sexism in sport, it is important to have: • Women’s Development Officer posts • Increased opportunities for women to participate • Role models • More women in positions of power • Legislation Thought for the Day • An anti-sexism advert from the Kick it Out campaign: Click here.