Manifest Destiny: Mexican-American War Manifest Destiny Defined First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." Ideological basis for belief: – Sincere belief in democracy and republicanism – Idealized view of U.S. as model for others Ideology intertwined with racist and imperialistic ideas about Indians and Mexicans. Reasons for Manifest Destiny Americans tempted by “free” land – U.S. stopped at Mississippi – Knew of California and Oregon Develop trade with Far East – Pacific Coast to Far East – need base – Jealous of Mexico’s success Fear of Foreign Invasion – British Claims to Oregon; Mexico in south Examples of Early U.S. Ideology Louisiana Purchase and Lewis & Clark Exploration Florida and the Seminole War - 1818 – Jackson “conquers” territory from Spain Adams-Onis Treaty – 1819 Texas Revolution New Mexico and the Santa Fe Trail Oregon: 1818 - agreed with Britain to leave it “Free and open”, but by 1840s U.S. changes policy The Spanish Settle Texas The original inhabitants were Native Americans, living in Texas for thousands of years. The Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to visit Texas, crossing it several times during the 1500s. Spain claimed Texas based on these explorations. Finding little wealth in the region, they made no attempt to settle. In 1689, the Spanish discovered the ruins of a French fort built on the coast that had been destroyed by local Indians. Alarmed that the French would try to claim the land, the Spanish came up with a plan to settle Texas. The Spanish Settle Texas The mission system The Spanish attempted to settle Texas by building missions, small settlements designed to convert the Indians to Christianity. The Spanish had effectively used the mission system in Mexico. They built two dozen missions and presidios between the late 1600s and 1700s; they also built San Antonio and Nacogdoches. Despite Spanish hopes, the missions failed and the towns never flourished. The mission system ends Native Americans rejected mission life, where they were expected to give up their culture as well as their religion. Some Indian groups viewed the Spanish as dangerous trespassers, attacking the missions and towns. The system was built to convert the Indians and to thwart French claims. In 1762, France ceded to Spain much of its land claim in North America. By 1800, Spain still claimed Texas, but had only three settlements in the region. Americans Move into Texas Moses Austin – In 1820, Austin proposed to Spanish colonial officials that, in exchange for land, he would build a colony in Texas. The Spanish agreed, but Austin died before he could start. His son, Stephen F. Austin, would carry out his wish for a colony. By 1824, about 300 families lived on farms and ranches throughout Austin’s colony. Mexican independence and the empresarios – Mexico gained its independence in 1821. The new government wanted Texas settled. They assigned large amounts of land to empresarios, contractors who recruited settlers and established colonies. Austin was the most successful of the empresarios. – By 1830, Texas had more than a dozen colonies with 30,000 settlers. This included several thousand enslaved Africans and 4,000 Tejanos, or Texans of Mexican heritage. The Texas Revolution American settlers in Texas had to agree to certain conditions in exchange for receiving land. They had to surrender their American citizenship; swear allegiance to Mexico; adopt the Roman Catholic religion; and hold the land for seven years. The settlers ignored the Mexican rules. They kept bringing in slaves, even after Mexico outlawed slavery. Settlers were still Americans, not Mexican. In 1830, Mexico passed a law halting American immigration and sent troops to Texas to enforce it. Mexican officials suspected that the U.S. wanted to acquire Texas. Originally claimed as part of the Louisiana Purchase, the U.S. had dropped its claim. But when an offer was made to buy a large part of Texas for $1 million, Mexicans refused, but their fears of U.S. intentions were confirmed. From the Alamo to Independence Rebel Texan forces captured San Antonio, which contained a fort called the Alamo. Santa Anna led an army into Texas to punish the rebels and put down the unrest once and for all. On February 23, 1836, Santa Anna’s force of 6,000 soldiers reached San Antonio. A demand of surrender was met with cannon fire from William Travis. The Mexican army laid siege to the fort, pounding it for 12 days and nights. The fort was finally stormed, with nearly all defenders killed. While the Alamo was under siege, a small group of Texans met at Washington-on-the-Brazos to issue the Texas Declaration of Independence. They wrote a constitution for the new, independent nation. Fighting for Independence The Runaway Scrape Santa Anna’s army continued to defeat the Texan rebels. Prisoners were held in the presidio at Goliad. After Mexican soldiers executed 340 prisoners at Goliad, Houston retreated to the east with his poorly trained army. Word of Houston’s retreat and the news of the Goliad Massacre started a panic. In what would be called the Runaway Scrape, thousands of Texans, including many Tejanos, fled Santa Anna’s advancing army. Texans victorious Santa Anna’s army followed Houston’s forces to San Jacinto, where Houston managed to take the Mexican army by surprise. Texans shouted, “Remember the Alamo!” and “Remember Goliad!” as they won a quick victory. The captured Santa Anna was forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war. Mexico had to withdraw its troops and recognize Texas independence. Problems with Mexico continued for the Republic of Texas. Texas Independence March 1, 1836, declared Independence – Elected Sam Houston as President Under duress, Santa Ana signs Treaty of Velasco Mexican government repudiated treaty and never recognized Texas Independence U.S. Annexation of Texas Houston and Texas immediately ask for annexation by U.S. Northern liberals oppose because they fear spread of slavery. Texas remains independent nation until March 1, 1845. Mexico sees annexation as a declaration of War and diplomatically leaves Washington The Annexation of Texas Proponents Americans who believed in Manifest Destiny wanted to admit Texas to the Union. Supporters viewed the Texas Revolution in the spirit of the American Revolution. Southerners supported annexation because Texas allowed slavery, and its admission would boost the South’s political power. Opponents Americans were concerned that the U.S. would have to bear the substantial Texas debt. Northerners opposed annexation because it would spread slavery westward and increase slave states’ voting power in Congress. A major argument in Congress was that the Constitution said nothing about admitting an independent nation. Factors leading to MexicanAmerican War Mexican anger over annexation of Texas Dispute over Texas/Mexican border – Nueces River or Rio Grande Instability of Mexican government – 19 governments in 25 years Polk Administration’s drive to expand U.S. – Polk saw his mandate as creating a coast-tocoast nation The Annexation of Texas A Republic for nine years – The annexation question was a significant issue in the 1844 presidential election. When James K. Polk, the pro-annexation candidate, won, Mexico warned that it would consider the annexation of Texas as a declaration of war. Tyler signs the joint resolution – Outgoing president John Tyler signed the joint resolution of Congress into law just three days before the end of his term, in March 1845. Texas becomes a state – Voters in Texas overwhelmingly approved annexation, and Texas became a part of the United States on December 29, 1845. Tensions between the United States and Mexico Mexico responds The annexation of Texas enraged the Mexican government. Mexico had refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, and they broke off diplomatic ties with the U.S. after the vote for annexation. Polk and Manifest Destiny In March 1845, James K. Polk became president. He wanted the nation to acquire the land between Texas and the Pacific Ocean. These sparsely populated territories, New Mexico and California, belonged to Mexico. Polk sought an opportunity to acquire these remote regions. The boundary dispute The U.S. needed to secure the boundary between Texas and Mexico. Texans put the border at the Rio Grande. Mexico maintained it was at the Nueces River. There were also disputes about money, and Polk wanted these issues resolved. Diplomatic Prelude to War 1845 Polk sends Zachary Taylor to Corpus Christi. Encamped on Nueces River Sends John Slidell to negotiate. He offers: – $5 million for New Mexico west of Rio Grande – $25 million for California Strong anti-U.S. sentiment meant that Mexico would not accept offer March 1846 Taylor crossed Nueces and war begins. The Mexican-American War The war starts While Slidell was in Mexico, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to take his troops into the disputed border territory. The U.S. used the event of a minor skirmish to declare war on Mexico. Fighting the war American forces under Taylor advanced into northern Mexico. General Winfield Scott marched his forces into Mexico City. In a matter of months, U.S. forces had captured New Mexico and California. When their capital fell, the Mexican government was forced to give in. Results of the war The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) forced Mexico to turn over a huge tract of land known as the Mexican Cession, while the U.S. paid Mexico $15 million. Debate continues over whether the MexicanAmerican War was justified. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Annexed half of Mexico to the U.S. (San Antonio) Created Rio Grande as international border U.S. Paid $15 million to Mexico for territory. 1848 irony - Mexicans hear of Gold Rush in California and Treaty on same day. In 1854, Gadsden Purchase solidifies southern boundary and mineral deposits to U.S. Aftermath of Battle If it was the United States’ manifest destiny to conquer land, were they also to conquer people? Three barriers to the “All Mexico” plan – Northern liberals hated conquest – Slavery question – Racism – could the U.S. really incorporate all the 8 million Mexican and Indians?