American Revolution Fight for a New Nation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u ZfRaWAtBVg Revolutionary Leaders to Know Quizlet on Edmodo American Colonial Leaders • • • • • • • • • • • Patrick Henry George Washington Thomas Paine Benedict Arnold Ben Franklin Marquis de Lafayette Bernardo de Galvez John Paul Jones James Armistead Haym Salomon Baron Von Steuben British Leaders • General Cornwallis • Lord Howe • Hessians • John Burgoyne Patrick Henry • Patrick Henry • “Give me Liberty or Give me Death” • Speech to convince undecided colonists to fight for freedom and liberty Leaders of the British Army General Cornwallis Lord Howe Lord General William Howe • Strength - organizing and moving his armies • Repeatedly outmaneuvers Washington • Did not aggressively pursue and destroy the Continental Army Problems in the British Army • Communication- Headquarters too far away • Low morale and reason for fighting • Diseases like Smallpox Hessians paid help from Prussia • British were not completely supporting the war effort • German mercenaries (paid soldiers) were hired to help the British fight the war. British Strategy • • • • • Strengths of British Army Vast supplies Strong Navy Experienced troops and leaders Admiral Howe was certain the rebels could be persuaded to abandon their revolution. Washington’s Strategy • British could not occupy the entire colonies against their will. • American Patriots would regain control of any town as soon as the occupying British army marched away. • Washington’s strategy became one of persistence: keep the army alive Washington As long as the army survived, America will survive. Washington had two advantages as a general: He seemed bulletproof He had lots of physical strength – without a large, experienced officer corps he often personally lead the army, directing combat, and saw to supplies • By the end of 1776, the Continental Army was on the brink of disaster • were badly outnumbered, • ill-fed • poorly clothed • year-long enlistments ended about to end Washington needed a victory. The Crisis • Difficult winter • T. Paine saved the day, again, with a collection of articles called, The Crisis “These are the times that try men’s souls.” “The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country;” “but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. “Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered;” “yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.” Battle of Trenton (NJ) • Washington left his campfires burning as a decoy for the British and Hessians • He crossed the icy Delaware and attacked • The Americans won with hardly any casualties • Encouraged thousands to volunteer for Continental Army • Merry Christmas! Battle of Saratoga BRITISH WANT TO CAPTURE THE HUDSON RIVER TO CUT OFF NEW ENGLAND FROM THE REST OF THE COLONIES Battle of Saratoga (NY) – 10/1777 • the British plan to capture and control the Hudson River • Burgoyne takes too long and decides to attack Washington and his men instead of meeting up in Albany • Was considered a “turning point” in the war • France enters the war, sending money and troops • Persuaded by Ben Franklin and victory at Saratoga THE BRITISH STRATEGY TO MEET AT ALBANY France Marquis de Lafayette convinces the French King to send troops to fight for America Spain • Bernardo de Galvez Governor of Spanish Louisiana • Sent the American army money and supplies. • Led an attack on Britain’s most important base in the Gulf of Mexico at Florida. • destroyed British rule along the Mississippi River Winter at Valley Forge http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtb9W3m PVtE Valley Forge (PA, Winter 1777-78) • Continental Army camped at Valley Forge for the winter and British forces stayed in Philadelphia • Officers resigned their commissions, soldiers deserted, death and disease overwhelmed those who stayed. • Army poorly supplied, decline in colonial currency – could not buy food. • Washington’s personal fortitude strengthens forces • Symbol of patriotism – Turning point in Revolution • Baron Von Steuben – Prussian officer to train Continental Army John Paul Jones • changed his name to Jones following the murder of a crew member on his merchant vessel • Captain in the Continental Navy. • I have not yet begun to fight when they wanted him to surrender. Traitor!!!! • General in Continental Army • Captured Fort Ticonderoga • He felt he had not been rewarded enough for his “heroic” actions in the war. • He betrayed his country and joined the British. Yorktown General Cornwallis surrenders to General Washington. The War is basically over. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ssbgJ3D 6cw End of the War!!!!!!!!! • Treaty of Paris, 1783 – King George recognizes the United States of America as a free and independent nation. New Boundaries of United States of America Treaty of Paris 1783 1. The United States was independent 2. Western Boundary was the Mississippi River, Northern Boundary was Canada and Southern Border was Spanish Florida 3. Right to fish off Canadian border 4. Each side repays debts it owed the other 5. British return any slaves captured during the war 6. Congress would recommend that states return any property seized from Loyalists Post-War • Americans DID NOT repay debt owed to British merchants or return land seized from Loyalists • British DID NOT return captured slaves and refused to abandon some military outposts Help from Women • Many of Washington’s spies were women. • Women helped as camp cooks and nurses • A few even disguised themselves as men and served as soldiers in the Army. Molly Hays McCauley. • “Molly, bring me a pitcher.” – water boy for troops – “Molly, Pitcher” • Her husband was wounded during Battle of Monmouth • Molly took over the cannon • General Washington commissioned her as "Sergeant Molly Pitcher" Deborah Sampson • Used her brother’s name to enlist in the Army in 1778 • Wounded in battle • Doctor discovers her secret –keeps it until end of war • husband was the only man to receive a widower's pension from the Revolutionary War.