American Revolution

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American Revolution
Fight for a New Nation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u
ZfRaWAtBVg
Revolutionary Leaders to Know
Quizlet on Edmodo
American Colonial Leaders
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Patrick Henry
George Washington
Thomas Paine
Benedict Arnold
Ben Franklin
Marquis de Lafayette
Bernardo de Galvez
John Paul Jones
James Armistead
Haym Salomon
Baron Von Steuben
British Leaders
• General Cornwallis
• Lord Howe
• Hessians
• John Burgoyne
Patrick Henry
• Patrick Henry
• “Give me Liberty or Give
me Death”
• Speech to convince
undecided colonists to
fight for freedom and
liberty
Leaders of the British Army
General Cornwallis
Lord Howe
Lord General William Howe
• Strength - organizing and
moving his armies
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Repeatedly outmaneuvers
Washington
• Did not aggressively pursue
and destroy the Continental
Army
Problems in the British Army
• Communication- Headquarters too far away
• Low morale and reason for fighting
• Diseases like Smallpox
Hessians
paid help from Prussia
• British were not
completely supporting
the war effort
• German mercenaries
(paid soldiers) were
hired to help the British
fight the war.
British Strategy
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Strengths of British Army
Vast supplies
Strong Navy
Experienced troops and leaders
Admiral Howe was certain the rebels could be
persuaded to abandon their revolution.
Washington’s Strategy
• British could not occupy the entire colonies
against their will.
• American Patriots would regain control of any
town as soon as the occupying British army
marched away.
• Washington’s strategy became one of
persistence: keep the army alive
Washington
As long as the army
survived, America will
survive.
Washington had two
advantages as a general:
He seemed
bulletproof
He had lots of physical
strength – without a
large, experienced
officer corps he often
personally lead the
army, directing
combat, and saw to
supplies
• By the end of 1776, the
Continental Army was on the
brink of disaster
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were badly outnumbered,
• ill-fed
• poorly clothed
• year-long enlistments ended
about to end
Washington needed a victory.
The Crisis
• Difficult winter
• T. Paine saved the day,
again, with a collection of
articles called, The Crisis
“These are the times that try men’s
souls.”
“The summer soldier and the
sunshine patriot will, in this crisis,
shrink from the service of their
country;”
“but he that stands by it now,
deserves the love and thanks of
man and woman.
“Tyranny, like hell, is not easily
conquered;”
“yet we have this consolation with
us, that the harder the conflict,
the more glorious the triumph.”
Battle of Trenton (NJ)
• Washington left his campfires burning as a decoy for the British and
Hessians
• He crossed the icy Delaware and attacked
• The Americans won with hardly any casualties
• Encouraged thousands to volunteer for Continental Army
• Merry Christmas!
Battle of Saratoga
BRITISH
WANT TO
CAPTURE THE
HUDSON
RIVER TO CUT
OFF NEW
ENGLAND
FROM THE
REST OF THE
COLONIES
Battle of Saratoga (NY) – 10/1777
• the British plan to capture and control the
Hudson River
• Burgoyne takes too long and decides to attack
Washington and his men instead of meeting up
in Albany
• Was considered a “turning point” in the war
• France enters the war, sending money and
troops
• Persuaded by Ben Franklin and victory at
Saratoga
THE BRITISH
STRATEGY TO
MEET AT ALBANY
France
Marquis de Lafayette
convinces the French King to
send troops to fight for
America
Spain
• Bernardo de Galvez
Governor of Spanish
Louisiana
• Sent the American army
money and supplies.
• Led an attack on Britain’s
most important base in
the Gulf of Mexico at
Florida.
• destroyed British rule
along the Mississippi
River
Winter at Valley Forge
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtb9W3m
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Valley Forge (PA, Winter 1777-78)
• Continental Army camped at Valley Forge for the
winter and British forces stayed in Philadelphia
• Officers resigned their commissions, soldiers
deserted, death and disease overwhelmed those
who stayed.
• Army poorly supplied, decline in colonial currency –
could not buy food.
• Washington’s personal fortitude strengthens forces
• Symbol of patriotism – Turning point in Revolution
• Baron Von Steuben – Prussian officer to train
Continental Army
John Paul Jones
• changed his name to
Jones following the
murder of a crew
member on his merchant
vessel
• Captain in the
Continental Navy.
• I have not yet begun to
fight when they wanted
him to surrender.
Traitor!!!!
• General in Continental
Army
• Captured Fort
Ticonderoga
• He felt he had not been
rewarded enough for
his “heroic” actions in
the war.
• He betrayed his country
and joined the British.
Yorktown
General Cornwallis surrenders to General
Washington. The War is basically over.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ssbgJ3D
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End of the War!!!!!!!!!
• Treaty of Paris, 1783 – King George recognizes
the United States of America as a free and
independent nation.
New Boundaries
of United States of America
Treaty of Paris 1783
1. The United States was independent
2. Western Boundary was the Mississippi River,
Northern Boundary was Canada and
Southern Border was Spanish Florida
3. Right to fish off Canadian border
4. Each side repays debts it owed the other
5. British return any slaves captured during the
war
6. Congress would recommend that states
return any property seized from Loyalists
Post-War
• Americans DID NOT repay debt owed to
British merchants or return land seized from
Loyalists
• British DID NOT return captured slaves and
refused to abandon some military outposts
Help from Women
• Many of Washington’s
spies were women.
• Women helped as camp
cooks and nurses
• A few even disguised
themselves as men and
served as soldiers in the
Army.
Molly Hays McCauley.
• “Molly, bring me a
pitcher.” – water boy for
troops – “Molly, Pitcher”
• Her husband was
wounded during Battle of
Monmouth
• Molly took over the
cannon
• General Washington
commissioned her as
"Sergeant Molly Pitcher"
Deborah Sampson
• Used her brother’s name
to enlist in the Army in
1778
• Wounded in battle
• Doctor discovers her
secret –keeps it until end
of war
• husband was the only
man to receive a
widower's pension from
the Revolutionary War.
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