Development – Unit 9 Study Guide

Development – Unit 9 Study Guide – AP Psychology
1. The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, mental, and social
changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called what?
2. What’s the difference in continuity and stages when talking about the developmental
3. Explain what nature vs. nurture is and how that relates to the development of humans.
4. During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n)
_____________ and finally develops into a ______________________.
5. The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.
6. Humanlike features start to develop around 9 weeks after conception. What is the
developing human called at this point in development?
7. Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to a fetus through the:
8. Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus
are called:
9. Sierra, a 28-year-old heroin addict, is pregnant. Her baby will be born:
10. When a pregnant woman drinks heavily, she puts her unborn child at risk for
11. Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby
will most likely be:
12. Although Mr. Tong was obviously busy reading an absorbing novel, his 5-year-old daughter
kept interrupting him with comments and questions about the TV cartoons she was
watching. Before Mr. Tong becomes irritated with his daughter for being inconsiderate, he
should be alerted to Piaget's concept of:
13. Habituation refers to the:
14. What is egocentrism?
15. The immaturity of an infant's nervous system is best demonstrated by its limited what?
16. Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing
theories in light of new information is to ________.
17. Excess neural connections in the brain's association areas are reduced through a process of:
18. What is infantile amnesia?
19. Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive
20. What is conservation? What age/stage do children start to understand this?
21. What is Asperger’s syndrome?
22. Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were
able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best
illustrates that the children had developed a:
23. The Harlows' studies of infant monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that body
contact promotes:
24. A critical period is a phase during which:
25. What is imprinting? Give an example.
26. What is temperament? Describe your own temperament.
27. What is the difference between authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parents? Give an
example for each.
28. What is the male answer syndrome?
29. Gender role refers to
30. Today's character education programs teach children to experience empathy. What is
empathy? Why is this important?
31. Fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's:
32. Crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person's:
33. The fact that many happy and well-adjusted adults were once rebellious and
unhappy as adolescents is most relevant to the issue of
A) continuity or stages.
B) preconventional or postconventional morality.
C) fluid or crystallized intelligence.
D) stability or change.
E) nature or nurture.
Issues in development
o Nature vs. Nurture
o Continuity vs. Stage
o Stability vs. Change
Prenatal development
o Zygote = the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and
develops into an embryo
o embryo = the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after conception
through the second month
o Fetus = the developing human organism from about 9 weeks through birth
 Teratogen
 Fetal alcohol syndrome
o Grasping
o Moro
o Babinski
o Rooting
o Sucking
Piaget’s Cognitive Development
o Stage 1:
Stage 2:
Stage 3:
Stage 4:
Lev Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development
o A child may be capable of higher cognitive functioning with the aid of a more able
o Pre-attachment phase = 0-3 months
o Indiscriminate phase = 3-7 months
o Discriminate phase = 7-9 months
o Multiple Attachment Phase – 9 months
o Forms of attachment
 Type A – Avoidant or detached
 Type B – Securely Attached
 Type C – Anxious-resistant or ambivalent
Harlow Study
Kohlberg Moral Development
o Stage 1
o Stage2
o Stage 3
o Stage 4
o Stage 5
o Stage 6
Erikson Social Development
o Stage 1:
Stage 2:
Stage 3:
Stage 4:
Stage 5:
Stage 6:
Stage 7:
Stage 8:
Adulthood changes
Stages of Death and Dying