PEM Yakıt Hücresi ve NTNU'daki Çalışmalar

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Anadolu Üniversitesi
University Based Innovation on
PEMFC in Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Süleyman Kaytakoğlu
Anadolu University
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Chemical Engineering
Eskişehir, Turkey
February 26-28, 2007
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I. Part
Presentation of Dept. of Chemical Engineering
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Anadolu University
Department of Chemical Engineering
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Education
- Since 1970
MSc Programme - Since 1981
PhD Programme - Since 1984
 BSc Programme


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Academic Staff





Professor
Assoc. Professor
Assist. Professor
Research Assist.
Technicians
4
1
8
10
2
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Research Statistics
 International Journal Articles
 National Journal Articles
 Conference Proceeding Articles
7
5
9
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Labs and Equipments
• 5000 square meter closed area
• 2 million € worth of equipment
• One of the well equipped student and
research laboratories in Turkey
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Research Infrastructure
at Department of Chemical Engineering
Full Electrochemical System – Solartron
Fuel Cell Test Facilities
GC
GC-MS
Elemental Analyzer
Atomic Absorption Analyzer
HPLC
Fuel Test Lab
FTIR
UV-VIS
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Research Infrastructure
at Faculty of Engineering and Architecture
TEM
SEMs (low vac. 0.6nm, EDX,WDX)
AFM
XRDs (Theta-Theta, up to 2000ºC, Rietveld)
 XRF
TG-DTA/DSC
 BET
 FTIR
 ICP
 Mercury Porosimeter
 Rapid prototyping facilities
Well equipped workshop
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II. Part
Presentation of University Based Innovation on
PEMFC
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PEM Fuel Cell
Anode
H2  2H+ + 2e-, U0 =0 V
Operating Temperature
Power Output
Applications
Required Power
Cathode
½ O2 + 2H+ + 2e-  H2O, U0 = 1,229 V
20-80ºC
Upto 250 kW
Portable, Transport, Military, Space
Cars(75 kW), Buses (250 kW)
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Research Milestones
H2 production studies began in 1997.
PEMFC activities in Dept. of Chem. Eng. started in 2002.
Since then, our PEMFC cell activities have made a peak due
to collaborations with Juelich research institute, Germany.
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Fuel Cell Market
• 2000
$218 million
• 2005
$2.4 billion (The Freedonia Group, Inc.)
• 2009
$7 billion (Business Com. Company, Inc.)
• 2020
$1.7 trillion (Price Waterhouse-Coopers)
• 2030
750,000 jobs (U.S. Dept. of Energy)
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Barriers to fuel cell commercialization
High cost of PEMFC components
Material costs for a present-day fuel cell stack
Material mass
Material cost
(US$/kW)
Lack of(kg/kW)
fueling infrastructure
Membrane
0.025
120
Electrode
0.082
31.16
Catalyst affordable
0.016 hydrogen production
243.2 and storage
Efficient,
Bipolar plate
3.3
825
End plate
0.12
0.24
Plastic frame
0.105
0.105
Total
3.684
1219.705
Kwi Seong Jeong and Byeong Soo Oh
Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle
Journal of Power Sources
Volume 105, Issue 1 , 5 March 2002, Pages 58-65
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http://www.buchmann.ca/Article1-Page1.asp
Energy
Source
Investment
of equipment to generate
1kW
Lifespan
of equipment before
major overhaul or
replacement
Cost of fuel
per kWh
Total Cost
per kWh, incl. fuel,
maintenance and
equipment replacement.
NiCd
For portable use
$7,000
based on 7.2V, 1000mAh
at $50/pack
1500 h
based on 1C discharge
$0.15
electricity for charging
$7.50
Gasoline Engine
For mobile use
$30
based on $3,000/100kW
(134HP)
4000 h
$0.10
$0.14
Diesel Engine
For stationary use
$40
based on $4,000/100kW
(134HP)
5000 h
$0.07
$0.10
Fuel Cell
$3,000 – 7,500
$0.35
For portable use
2000 h
$0.35
$1.85 – 4.10
For mobile use
4000 h
$0.35
$1.10 – 2.25
For stationary use
40,000 h
$0.35
$0.45 – 0.55
All inclusive
0.10
0.10
Electricity
From electric grid
All inclusive
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What are we doing for FCs?
1. Manufacture of Gas Diffusion Layer
2. MEA production by both conventional and sputter
methods
3. Building up a FC test station upto 5 kW –hardware and
software4. PEMFC stack manufacturing – 1 kW
5. Micro size -both active and passive- DMFC production
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Manufacture of Gas Diffusion Layer
Thickness
: 300 μm
Carbon content : 3-5 mg/cm2
PTFE content
: 1-2 mg/cm2
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MEA Production
Conventional
(Pt loading range: 0.1-5 mg Pt/cm2)
Sputtered
(Pt loading range: 0.01-0.1 mg Pt/cm2)
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Building up a FC Test Station
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PEMFC Stack Manufacturing
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DMFC Production
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1,2
400
4 barg
E-TEK
350
PEM001
1
PEM002
300
250
0,6
200
150
Power Density, mW/cm 2
0,8
Potantial, V
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Results for Conventional MEA
0,4
100
0,2
50
0
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Current Density, mA/cm2
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1,2
400
E-TEK
SP001
1
350
SP005
SP010
300
SP020
250
0,6
200
150
0,4
Power Density, mW/cm
2
0,8
Potential, V
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Results for Sputter Based MEA
100
0,2
50
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0
1400
Current Density, mA/cm 2
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35000
E-TEK
SP005
30000
SP001
SP010
SP020
25000
mW/mg Pt
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Results for Sputter Based MEA
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0
200
400
600
800
Current Density, mA/cm
1000
1200
1400
2
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SEM Image
120 s
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”The Europe of Knowledge 2020:
A vision for university based research and
innovation” Liege 25-28 April’04
• Interdisiplinary Approach
• Relationship between Higher Education and Research
• University – Industry Relationship
• The effect of universities in the development of regional
development
• Mobility of Researchers including between University and
Industry
• Commercialisation of university based innovation
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Research Collaborations
•DAAD (Germany)
•Jülich Research Center (Germany)
•Technical University of Karlsruhe (Germany)
•Solitem Group (Germany)
•Louisiana State University (USA)
•NTNU, SINTEF and IFE (Norway)
•KTH (Sweden)
•UNIDO-ICHET (Turkey)
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Industrial Collaborations
• Arıkan Machinery Industry GmbH
• Demirdöküm DD Heating GmbH
• Savronik Defense Industry GmbH
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On Going Projects
•Development of a 1 kW PEMFC stack
•Maximization of Pt Utilization at PEMFC Electrodes
using sputtering method
•Optimization of MEA Components
•Optimization of operating parameters of PEMFC
•Design and Testing of DMFC
•Design and Testing of Passive DMFC
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Future Projects
• Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System
for household application
• Transportation application of a PEMFC stack
• Capture, storage and electrochemical reduction
of CO2 to CO
• High purity hydrogen production via steam reforming
of natural gas
•Membrane for High Temperature PEMFC applications
•Non-Pt based electrocatalyst development for FCs
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If you have a problem for which our expertise
could be of use, we would like to become your
partner - please do not hesitate to contact us!
Contact Point
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Süleyman Kaytakoğlu
Anadolu University
Dept. Of Chemical Engineering
26555 - Eskişehir/Turkey
Phone: +90-222-3213550/Ext. 6306
Fax: +90-222-3239501
E-mail: [email protected]
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Thank you for your attention
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