CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES THE COMPROMISES THE VIRGINIA PLAN (The Big State Plan) Authored by James Madison 3 Branches – Executive, Judicial, and Legislative Bicameral legislature (2 houses) Representation based on population Executive and Judicial chosen by Congress THE NEW JERSEY PLAN (The Small State Plan) Authored by William Paterson 3 Branches Unicameral legislature (1 house) Representation: Each state would get one vote Executive and Judicial chosen by the Congress THE CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE (The Great Compromise) Suggested by Roger Sherman Congress to be bicameral with Senate and House of Representatives Senate – states represented equally House – representation based on population THE THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE (Could slaves be counted?) All “free persons” would be counted Three-fifths of “all other persons” Would be the basis for representation Would also be the basis for any direct tax 1790 CENSUS Total U.S. population African-American population New York City Philadelphia Virginia 3,929,625 697,624 slaves 59,557 free 33,000 42,000 820,000 THE COMMERCE AND SLAVE TRADE COMPROMISE Southerners feared Northerners would tax agricultural trade with England Congress given power to regulate trade BUT was forbidden to tax exports Southerners feared Northerners would stop the slave trade Congress forbidden to interfere at least until 1808 OTHER COMPROMISES How to elect the President How long should the President serve? election by the people? by Congress? by state legislatures? Answer: The Electoral College System Answer: 4 years How should judges be selected? How should new states be admitted? How should the Constitution be amended?