Microbiology Review Part 1: Viruses 1. Viruses are considered non-living particles that need a _______________ to survive. 2. All viruses contain what two components? a. _______________________ b. _______________________ 3. Replication: There are two main replication cycles of viruses. Describe each: a. Lytic cycle: b. Lysogenic cycle: 4. True or False: Viruses are very specific as to the type of host cell they can invade. For example, influenza attacks human respiratory cells. Tobacco mosaic virus, attacks cells of a tobacco plant. 5. HIV is a retrovirus. All retroviruses have genetic information in the form of DNA/RNA (circle one) and carry the enzyme _________________________________. 6. Explain how a retrovirus affects the host cell. 7. If you went to the doctor because you felt sick all over and the doctor diagnosed you with the flu, would they give you an antibiotic? Why or why not? 8. What is a vaccine? Part 2: Bacteria 9. What type of cells are bacteria? 10. Label the parts to the following bacterial cell: 11. What percent of bacteria are helpful? 12. List three benefits of bacteria. a. _ b. _ c. _ 13. What does it mean for a bacterium to be an obligate aerobe? 14. Most bacteria reproduce by a process known as ______________________________. 15. Bacteria don’t reproduce sexually. However, some bacteria can exchange genetic information through the process of ____________________________. 16. Some bacteria have the protective ability to go dormant when conditions are unfavorable. When this occurs we say that they have formed an _____________________________. 17. What are the three main shapes to bacteria? List the scientific name and sketch it. 18. What is an antibiotic? 19. What is antibiotic resistance?