Identity Development Social: (James Marcia, 1966, 1980) Four bases for forming an establishment of political, religious, occupational, sexual values and goals. Social: • Identity Crisis: Exploration, questioning the values and goals defined by the child’s parents • Identity Commitment: Attaching ownership to pronounced values and goals Social: • Identity Foreclosures: Identity Commitment, No Identity Crisis • Identity Achievement: Identity Commitment and Identity Crisis • Moratoriums: No Identity Commitment, Identity Crisis • Identity Diffusion: No Identity Crisis, No Identity Commitment Racial and Ethnic: Black Identity: (Psychological Nigressence) (Cross, 1995) 5 Stages: 1. Pre-encounter 2. Encounter 3. Immersion- Emersion 4. Internalization 5. Internalization Commitment White Identity: (Moving toward a Non-Racist White Identity) (Helms, 1993) Phase One: Abandonment of Racism Status 1: Contact Status 2: Disintegration Status 3: Reintegration Phase Two: Defining a Non-Racist White Identity Status 4: Pseudo independence Status 5: Immersion- Emersion Status 6: Autonomy Ethnic Identity Development: (Phinney, 1990) Stage 1: Diffusion-Foreclosure Stage 2: Moratorium Stage 3: Identity Achievement) Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual: Homosexual Identity Formation: (Cass, 1979) Stage 1: Identity Confusion Stage 2: Identity Comparison Stage 3: Identity Tolerance Stage 4: Identity Acceptance Stage 5: Identity Pride Stage 6: Identity Synthesis Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Development (D’Augelli, 1994) Six Interactive Processes: 1: Exiting Heterosexual Identity 2: Developing a Personal LGB Identity Status 3: Developing a LGB Social Identity 4: Becoming a LGB Offspring 5: Developing a LGB Intimacy Status 6: Entering a LGB Community Spiritual Development: (Parks, 2000) Stage 1: Forms of Knowing Adolescent/ Conventional: Authority- bound, Dualistic/ Unqualified Relativism Young Adult: Probing Commitment Tested Adult: Tested Commitment Mature Adult: Convictional Commitment Stage 2: Forms of Dependence Adolescent/ Conventional: Dependent/ Counter- dependent Young Adult: Fragile Inner-dependence Tested Adult: Confident Inner-dependence Mature Adult: Interdependence Stage 3: Forms of Community Adolescent/ Conventional: Conventional/ Diffuse Young Adult: Mentoring Community Tested Adult: Self-selected class/group Mature Adult: Open to Other “The search for identity and coming to know who one is in today’s world is a complex process (Gergen, 1991). This process is particularly intricate when the multiple dimensions of race, ethnicity, social class, gender and sexual orientation are incorporated (Jones, 1997).” References: Cass, V.C. (1979). Homosexual Identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219-235. Cross, W.E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of Nigrescence: Revising the Cross model. In J.G. Ponterotto, J.M. Casas, L.A. Suzuki, & C.M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 93-122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. D’Augelli, A.R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E.J. Trickett, R.J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 312-333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gergen, K.J. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books. Helms, J.E. (1993). Toward a model of white racial identity development. In J.E. Helms (Ed.), Black and white racial identity: Theory, research and practice (pp. 49-66). Westport, CT: Praeger. Jones, S.R. (1997). Voices of identity and difference: A qualitative exploration of the multiple dimensions of identity development in women college students. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 376-386. Josselson, R. (1987a). Finding herself: Pathways to identity development in women. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Marcia, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551-558. Marcia, J.E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159-187). New York: Wiley. Parks, S.D. (2000). Big questions, worthy dreams: Mentoring young adults in their search for meaning, purpose, and faith. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Phinney, J.S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514. Reisser, L. (1995). Revisiting the seven vectors. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 505-511.