Review of Identity Development Theory

Identity Development
(James Marcia, 1966, 1980)
Four bases for forming an establishment
of political, religious, occupational,
sexual values and goals.
• Identity Crisis: Exploration, questioning
the values and goals defined by the
child’s parents
• Identity Commitment: Attaching
ownership to pronounced values and
• Identity Foreclosures:
Identity Commitment, No Identity Crisis
• Identity Achievement:
Identity Commitment and Identity Crisis
• Moratoriums:
No Identity Commitment, Identity Crisis
• Identity Diffusion:
No Identity Crisis, No Identity Commitment
Racial and Ethnic:
Black Identity:
(Psychological Nigressence)
(Cross, 1995)
5 Stages:
1. Pre-encounter
2. Encounter
3. Immersion- Emersion
4. Internalization
5. Internalization Commitment
White Identity:
(Moving toward a Non-Racist White Identity)
(Helms, 1993)
Phase One: Abandonment of Racism
Status 1: Contact
Status 2: Disintegration
Status 3: Reintegration
Phase Two: Defining a Non-Racist White Identity
Status 4: Pseudo independence
Status 5: Immersion- Emersion
Status 6: Autonomy
Ethnic Identity Development:
(Phinney, 1990)
Stage 1: Diffusion-Foreclosure
Stage 2: Moratorium
Stage 3: Identity Achievement)
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual:
Homosexual Identity Formation:
(Cass, 1979)
Stage 1: Identity Confusion
Stage 2: Identity Comparison
Stage 3: Identity Tolerance
Stage 4: Identity Acceptance
Stage 5: Identity Pride
Stage 6: Identity Synthesis
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual
(D’Augelli, 1994)
Six Interactive Processes:
1: Exiting Heterosexual Identity
2: Developing a Personal LGB Identity Status
3: Developing a LGB Social Identity
4: Becoming a LGB Offspring
5: Developing a LGB Intimacy Status
6: Entering a LGB Community
Spiritual Development:
(Parks, 2000)
Stage 1: Forms of Knowing
Adolescent/ Conventional: Authority- bound, Dualistic/
Unqualified Relativism
Young Adult: Probing Commitment
Tested Adult: Tested Commitment
Mature Adult: Convictional Commitment
Stage 2: Forms of Dependence
Adolescent/ Conventional: Dependent/ Counter- dependent
Young Adult: Fragile Inner-dependence
Tested Adult: Confident Inner-dependence
Mature Adult: Interdependence
Stage 3: Forms of Community
Adolescent/ Conventional: Conventional/ Diffuse
Young Adult: Mentoring Community
Tested Adult: Self-selected class/group
Mature Adult: Open to Other
“The search for identity and coming to
know who one is in today’s world is a
complex process (Gergen, 1991). This
process is particularly intricate when
the multiple dimensions of race,
ethnicity, social class, gender and
sexual orientation are incorporated
(Jones, 1997).”
Cass, V.C. (1979). Homosexual Identity
formation: A theoretical model. Journal
of Homosexuality, 4, 219-235.
Cross, W.E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of
Nigrescence: Revising the Cross model.
In J.G. Ponterotto, J.M. Casas, L.A.
Suzuki, & C.M. Alexander (Eds.),
Handbook of multicultural counseling
(pp. 93-122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
D’Augelli, A.R. (1994). Identity development
and sexual orientation: Toward a model
of lesbian, gay, and bisexual
development. In E.J. Trickett, R.J. Watts,
& D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity:
Perspectives on people in context (pp.
312-333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gergen, K.J. (1991). The saturated self:
Dilemmas of identity in contemporary
life. New York: Basic Books.
Helms, J.E. (1993). Toward a model of white
racial identity development. In J.E.
Helms (Ed.), Black and white racial
identity: Theory, research and practice
(pp. 49-66). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jones, S.R. (1997). Voices of identity and
difference: A qualitative exploration of
the multiple dimensions of identity
development in women college
students. Journal of College Student
Development, 38, 376-386.
Josselson, R. (1987a). Finding herself:
Pathways to identity development in
women. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Marcia, J.E. (1966). Development and
validation of ego-identity status. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 3,
Marcia, J.E. (1980). Identity in adolescence.
In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of
adolescent psychology (pp. 159-187).
New York: Wiley.
Parks, S.D. (2000). Big questions, worthy
dreams: Mentoring young adults in their
search for meaning, purpose, and faith.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Phinney, J.S. (1990). Ethnic identity in
adolescents and adults: Review of
research. Psychological Bulletin, 108,
Reisser, L. (1995). Revisiting the seven
vectors. Journal of College Student
Development, 36, 505-511.