Improving Performance

do athletes train for improved performance?
•What are the planning considerations for improving performance?
•What ethical issues are related to improving performance?
Content Summary:
 Strength training
 Aerobic training
 Anaerobic training (power and speed)
 Flexibility training
 Skill training
Strength: is the ability of a muscle or muscle
group to exert a force against a resistance.
Strength Training: is a general term that
encompasses all types of exercise designed
to improve strength and increase muscle size.
Strength program variables:
- repetitions - repetitions maximum
- set
- resistance
- periodisation
Overload Techniques:
Pyramid Training:
With each set performed the resistance is increased and the number of
repetitions decreased. If the athlete was to perform 4 sets, by the fourth set
they should have fatigued the particular muscle group e.g. Set 1 - 12 reps at
50 kg, Set 2 - 9 reps at 70 kg, Set 3 - 6 reps at 85kg, Set 4 - 3 reps at
Reverse Pyramid Training:
This is the opposite to pyramid training. The athlete starts with a heavy
resistance and does a few reps. With each set the weight is decreased and
the number of reps increased.
This technique involves working a muscle group with a variety of different
exercises until fatigue occurs. A variety of exercises are used so that a
training effect occurs through the full range of movement.
Overload Techniques Cont.:
Forced Repetitions: Forced repetitions are assistance with repetitions
to perform additional reps of an exercise when muscles can no
longer complete the movement on their own.
Super Sets:
This technique involves completing 2 sets of different exercises with no
rest between sets e.g. dumbbell kickback immediately followed by dips.
The same muscle can be worked, as in the example (triceps), or
alternatively agonist and antagonist muscle groups can be trained using
this method.
Negative Repetitions:
This involves working with a spotter/partner. This technique involves the
athlete performing an exercise to fatigue. When fatigue is reached the
spotter assists the athlete to raise the bar, leaving them to lower the
weight in a controlled manner.
Resistance Training
Read through the content on page 49 and 50
of your work booklets.
Complete the activities on elastic resistance
training and hydraulic resistance equipment.
Weight Training
A barbell is a longer bar with plate weights requiring two hands,
while dumbbells are short bars with weights attached and are
used in either hand.
A concentric contraction occurs when a muscle contracts and
shortens, thereby causing movement.
An eccentric contraction occurs when a muscle lengthens under a
load. Most often this happens when a muscle is controlling a
movement of a load as it moves with the aid of gravity.
Hypertrophy refers to the increase in size in any body part, but for
the purposes of training is most commonly used to describe the
increase in the size of muscles due to training.
Lateral Shoulder Raise: Stand with your feet approximately
shoulder width apart and grasp a dumbbell in each hand
allowing the dumbbells to hang down at your sides with your
palm facing in toward your body. Simultaneously raise the
dumbbells by bringing the backs of your hands to the ceiling,
keeping your arms as straight as possible throughout the
movement. Bring your arms to a point that is parallel to the floor,
hold for a one-count and return to the start position and repeat
for the desired repetitions. The major muscle group trained is
the deltoids.
Shoulder Shrug: The athlete stands with a barbell at waist height,
feet shoulder width apart using an overhand grip. Without
bending the elbows the athlete raises the shoulders and
attempts to touch the ears with the shoulders and then slowly
return to the starting position. The movement should be a slow
rolling one. The major muscle group trained is the trapezius.
Dumbbell Curl: Lie back on an incline bench and hold a dumbbell in each
hand. Let your arms hang straight down on both sides with your palms
facing in toward each other. Slowly curl the weight in your left hand as if
to touch it to your left shoulder. While you are curling the dumbbell,
slowly turn your wrist outward so that your thumb points away from
your body Squeeze your bicep at the top of the movement for a onecount and then slowly return to the start position and repeat with your
right arm. The major muscle group trained is the bicep.
Barbell Bench Press: The athlete lies on their back on a bench with feet
flat on the floor. The bar is gripped slightly more than shoulder width
apart with the fingers pointing towards the feet. The athlete lowers the
bar until it touches the chest, approximately on the nipple line. The
barbell is then pressed back to the starting position. A spotter should be
used and the bar should not be bounced on the chest. The major muscle
group trained are the pectorals.
Lat Pull Down: This exercise is performed on a lat pull down machine.
The athlete sits on the seat with their thighs under the pads provided.
The athlete faces the machine. The athlete grips the bar using an
overhand grip, wider than shoulder width. The bar is then pulled down
until it touches the back of the neck. In a controlled manner the bar is
then returned to its starting position. The major muscle group trained is
the latissimus dorsi.
Leg Curl: The athlete lies face down on a hamstring curl machine with
the heels under the pads provided. The handles provided can be gripped
by the athlete. The knee is flexed until the pads touch the gluteals and
then lowered again. The major muscle group trained are the hamstrings.
Leg Extension: The athlete sits on the leg extension machine with the
front of the ankles behind the pads provided. The handles provided can
be gripped by the athlete. The knee is straightened until completely
straight and then returned to the starting position. The upper body
should remain still. The major muscle group trained are the quadriceps.
Calf Raise: The athlete stands with the barbell resting on their
shoulders, feet shoulder width apart and using an overhand grip.
The athlete rises up onto the toes as far as possible and then
returns to the starting position. The legs and back are kept
straight throughout the movement. The major muscle group
trained are the calves, the gastrocnemius and soleus.
Upright Rowing: Stand with straight back, shoulders back, feet
shoulder width apart, barbell resting against front of hips with
overhand grip, hands together in the middle of the bar. Keeping
elbows high, raise the bar to under the chin and return.
Abdominals – crunches, hover. Quadriceps – squats, lunges. Back
– back flys, back extensions. Chest – flys, pullovers.
 Equipment needs are minimal
 It is helpful to overcome weaker points in the
 It takes little time, is simple to learn and easy
to perform.
 It is valuable in rehabilitating an injury, such
as a muscle tear.
 Much of this training can be performed in a
variety of places.
 It does not increase strength through the full
range of motion of the joint unless applies at
all the respective angles.
 It causes a rise in blood pressure.
 Speed is reduced through strengthening in a
static position.
 Other methods, such as isotonic testing,
must be used to measure progress.
 It does not produce muscular endurance.
 Most benefits occur early in training.