Classification and Taxonomy

Classification and Taxonomy
Why might it be useful to
classify living things?
Group Activity
• Lets say that you were opening a
hardware store and before you opened,
you had to organize all of your
merchandise so that your customers and
employees could easily find what they
were looking for. In your groups, decide
on a method of organization and provide a
detailed account of your organizational
system. One group member is recorder,
one member is the spokesperson.
Domains of Life
Bacteria: Most of the Known
II. Archaea: Prokaryotes of Extreme
III. Eukarya: Eukaryotic Cells
Biological Organization
• Each of the domains are further
subdivided into successively smaller and
smaller subcategories. The complete
hierarchal breakdown is Kingdom-Phylum
-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species. To
remember this sequence, the following
mnemonic device is often helpful:
• King--Phillip--Came--Over--For--Good-Soup
Biological Organization
Kingdom (one or more phyla)
Phylum/Division (one or more classes)
Class (one or more orders)
Order (one or more families)
Family (one or more genera)
Genus (one or more species)
Species (a distinct kind or unit)
Street Number
• Make up your own mnemonic device. This
will be due on a separate sheet of paper
on Tuesday 5/13/08. Remember, you key
terms are also due as well!
Living organisms were subdivided
into 5 major kingdoms
1. Monera
2. Protista
3. Fungi
4. Plantae
5. Animalia
The basic characteristics of each kingdom
and approximate number of species are
summarized in the following table:
• Prokaryotic Cells Without Nuclei And
Membrane-Bound Organelles
• 1. Kingdom Monera [10,000 species]:
Unicellular and colonial--including the true
bacteria (eubacteria) and cyanobacteria
(blue-green algae). Eukaryotic Cells With
Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles:
• 2. Kingdom Protista (Protoctista) [250,000
species]: Unicellular protozoans and
unicellular & multicellular (macroscopic)
algae with 9 + 2 cilia and flagella (called
• 3. Kingdom Fungi [100,000 species]: Haploid
and dikaryotic (binucleate) cells,
multicellular, generally heterotrophic, without
cilia and eukaryotic (9 + 2) flagella
• 4. Kingdom Plantae [250,000 species]: Haplodiploid life cycles, mostly autotrophic,
retaining embryo within female sex organ on
parent plant.
• 5. Kingdom Animalia [1,000,000 species]:
Multicellular animals, without cell walls and
without photosynthetic pigments, forming
diploid blastula.
The 6 Kingdom System is now
• The prior kingdom monera is divided up
into eubacteria and archaebacteria