muscular system

Muscular system
Types of the muscle
Skeletal:striated, and voluntary.
 Smooth:nonstiated, and involuntary.
 Cardiac:striated, and involuntary.
Types of connective tissues
wrappings of skeletal muscle
Endomysium : a delicate connective tissue
sheath surrounds muscle fibre.
 Perimysium : a coarser fibrous membrane
surrounds several sheathed muscle fibers to
form bundle of fibers called a fascicle.
 Epimysium : a tougher overcoat of
connective tissue surrounds many fascicles.
The epimysia blend into the strong, cordlike tendons, or into sheet-like aponeurosis.
 Function:attaching the muscle to bone….
Providing durability
Conserving space
Muscle function
Providing movement
 Maintaining posture
 Stabilizing joint
 Generating heat
Origin : is the point where the muscle is
attached to immovable or less movable
 Insertion : is the point where the muscle
attached to movable bone.
Prime mover : the muscle that has the major
responsibility for causing a movement.
 Antagonist : the muscle that reverse a
Naming Skeletal muscles
Direction of the muscle fibers
 Relative size of the muscle
 Location of the muscle
 Number of the origin
 Location of the muscle’s origin and
 Shape of the muscle
 Action of the muscle
Types of body movements
Flexion &extension:
movement in sagittal plane
It is the movement of a bone around its
long axis
atlas around the dens of axis
Abduction &adduction:
moving the limb away or toward the
midline of the body
Circumduction :
is a combination of
flexion, extension, abduction and
Special movement
Dosiflexion&planter flexion
 Inversion and eversion
 Supination and pronation
 opposition
Head muscles
Facial Muscles (Frontalis, Orbicularis oculi
Orbicularis oris, Buccinator,Zygomaticus) .
 Chewing Muscle (Buccinator,Masseter,
Facial muscles
Frontalis :
It raise the eyebrows
It wrinkle the forehead
Orbicularis oculi :
It closes the eyes, blink.
Orbicularis oris:
It closes the mouth
Buccinator :
It flatten the cheek.
Chewing Muscle
Masseter :
It closes the jaw by elevating the mandible
It is synergist of the masseter in closing the
Neck muscles
Sternocleidomastoid : it is a paired muscles
with two headed muscles, one from each
side of the neck.
 platysma
Trunk muscles
Anterior muscles
 Muscles of the abdominal wall
 Posterior muscles
Anterior muscles :
Pectoralis major : a large fan shaped
muscle covering the upper part of the chest.
It adduct and flex the arm.
Intercostal muscles:
External intercostal
Internal intercostal
innermost intercostal
Muscles of the abdominal wall :
Rectus abdominis
External oblique
Internal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Posterior muscles :
Trapezius : It is the most superficial
muscles of posterior neck and upper trunk.
It extend the head &antagonist
Latissmus Dorsi:
Large, flat muscle pair that cover the lower back.
Extends and adducts the humerus.
Erector spinae:
Deep muscles of the back.It extend the back.
Favorite injection
Prime movers of arm abduction.
Muscle of the upper limb
The first group include muscles that arise
from the shoulder girdle and cross the
shoulder joint to insert into the humerus
(pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and
The second group causes movement at the
elbow joint (Biceps
brachii,brachialis,brachioradialis, and
triceps brachii)
The third group causes movement at the
wrist joint (flexor carpi and flexor
(extensor carpi and extensor digitorum)
Muscles of lower limb
Muscles causing movement at the hip joint
 Muscles causing movement at the knee joint
 Muscles causing movement at the ankle and
foot joint
Muscles causing movement at the hip joint
(gluteus maximus,gluteus medius,illiopsoas
,adductor muscles)
Muscles causing movement at the knee joint
(hamstring group,sartorius ,quadriceps
Muscles causing movement at the ankle and
foot joint (tibialis anterior,extensor
digitorum longus,fibularis