Communication in Living Things is normally not covered in the 10th

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Communication in Living Things is normally not covered in the 10th grade biology curriculum. Because of
this, you should take the time to examine this topic. Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System
is our 3rd step in understanding this idea. In this outline you will find the AP Bio curriculum that is
addressed in chapter 45 and some questions that will guide you so that you can begin to understand this
topic.
Big Idea 3: Living systems, store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes
o
o
Essential Knowledge 3.D.2 Cells communicate with each other through direct contact
with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling (11.1, 11.2, 45.1, 45.2)
 Signals released by one cell type can travel long distances to target cells of
another cell type
 Endocrine signals are produced by endocrine cells that release signaling
molecules into the blood stream that reach all body parts
o Insulin
o Human growth hormone
o Thyroid hormones
o testosterone
o estrogen
Essential Knowledge 3.D.4 Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular
responses
 Blocked or defective pathways = deleterious, preventative or prophylactic
 Diabetes
Use the information from chapter 45 (page 974) to answer the following questions.
1.
What is a hormone?
2. Why does a hormone elicit a response only with target cells?
3. The body has two long-distance regulating systems. Which involves chemical signals by
hormones?
4. Several types of secreted signaling molecules are discussed in this chapter. Compare the action
of each of the following and give an example.
Signaling Molecule
Hormones
Action
Example
Local Regulators
Neurotransmitters
Pheromones
5. Recall that target cells have receptors for specific hormones. Where are the receptors for lipidsoluble hormones found?
6. Where are the receptors for the water-soluble proteins? Explain this difference for two types of
hormones.
7. Carefully read the section of Cellular Response Pathways, and use that information to complete
this table.
Hormone type
Method of
Secretion
Mode of Travel in
Bloodstream
Location of
Receptors
Examples
Water –Soluble
Lipid-Soluble
8. On the AP Biology exam, you will be expected to understand the process of positive feedback.
How is oxytocin an example of a hormone that is under positive regulation (positive feedback
system)?
9. Complete the following chart for this pair of antagonistic hormones.
Hormone
Insulin
Secreted by
Action
Glucagon
10. On the AP Biology exam, you will be expected to explain a feedback loop. Use figure 45.13
(page 982) to examine the control of blood glucose by insulin and glucagon. This is a commonly
used example and one you should know.
11. What occurs in diabetes mellitus?
12. Distinguish between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
13. Which type of diabetes is correlated with obesity?
14. You will find it useful to be able to link hormones with the tissue that secretes them and know
their functions. Pull together the information from this chapter to complete the following chart.
Hormone
Growth Hormone
Secreted by
Action and/or Effect of Hypo- or Hypersecretion
Thyroxine
Calcitonin
Testosterone
Estradiol
15. What two hormones are antagonistic controllers of blood calcium levels?
16. Why are gluccocorticoids effective in treating arthritis? What is the problem with their longterm use?