Exploring Sport Psychology's Growth, Mental Skills, and Applications

Emily Huelskamp
 Introduction
 Recognition and Popularity
 Four Mental Skills
 Additional Areas
 Christian Application
Introduction: Disclaimer
 Practicing sport psychology
Introduction: Definition
 “Concerned with the psychological factors that
influence participation and performance in sport and
exercise and with the psychological effects derived
from participation” (Williams, 2006)
 Helps athletes overcome mental barriers
Increasing Recognition
 Examples of application:
 Madeline Manning
1968 800m Olympic Gold Medalist
 Brad Lewis
1984 Double Sculls Olympic Gold Medalist
 Red Auerbach
Legendary Celtics Coach
Increasing Popularity
 School enrollment
 Teams
 Professional
 National
 Collegiate
 Individual consultation practices
Mental Skills
 Goal Setting
 Relaxation
 Self-Talk
 Imagery
Goal Setting
 Goals direct action and provide focus (Baltzell, 2009)
 Influence on performance
 Three categories:
 Outcome
 Performance
 Process
 Short and Long-term
Goal Setting: SMARTS
 Specific
 Measurable
 Adjustable
 Realistic
 Timely
 Self-Determined
Goal Setting: Example
 A student has a presentation due at the end of the month that
involves researching a topic, writing a paper, then presenting a
power point show.
 Poorly-Defined:
 “I will finish the research and writing by a week before the due date
then work on the power point portion for the last week.”
 Well-Defined:
 “I will spend one hour on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays of the
first two weeks researching the topic. The second week I will spend
two hours Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday writing the
paper. If extra time is needed, I will write for longer on Friday and
Saturday. The last week I will complete half of the power point on
Tuesday afternoon and the other half on Wednesday morning. This
leaves me Thursday to practice and fine tune for the Friday
 Awareness, “Checking-in”
 “Help[s] athletes harness arousal so that it will not
become an uncontrollable anxiety response”
(Williams, 2006)
 Influence on performance
 Inverted-U Hypothesis
 Sport- and Athlete-Specific
Optimal Levels
Relaxation: Techniques
 Breathing
 Must be diaphragmatic
 1:2 Ratio
 Meditation
 Progressive Relaxation (PR)
 Active PR
 “Any self-statement or thought about the self”
(Baltzell, 2009)
 Must focus on the desired goal (Williams, 2006)
Self-Talk: Techniques
 Thought Stopping
 Identifying the negative thought, stopping the thought, then
focusing on the task-relevant thought
 Changing negative to positive
 Coupling thoughts to redirect attention
 Countering
 Internal dialogue that uses facts and reason to refute the underlying
beliefs and assumptions that lead to negative thinking
 Reframing
 Process of creating alternative frames of reference or different ways
of looking at the world
 “Using all the senses to re-create or create an
experience in the mind.” (Williams, 2006)
 Point of view
 External
 Internal
 Applications
 Practice without physical exhaustion
 Increased repetition
 Injury
Imagery: Example
 The 2k
Additional Areas
 Concentration
 Example: TIC – TOC
 Motivation
 Extrinsic
 Intrinsic
Christian Application
 Straight-forward application
 Vulnerability
 Motivation