psychological strategies to enhance motivation and

•Concentration & attention skills
•Mental rehearsal, visualisation and
•Relaxation techniques
•Goal setting
Concentration & Attention Skills (Focus)
• Concentration is the ability to link movement and awareness
to the extent that the individual can focus on doing, rather
than thinking about doing.
• Concentration can be improved through training that
emphasises the process rather than the outcome. When an
individual focuses on the process, they give attention to
technique which helps improve performance.
• The type of concentration required varies from one sport to
another. Intense concentration is required in activities such as
gymnastics, diving and batting in cricket.
• Intervals of high concentration interspersed with periods with
less intense concentration predominate most team games.
• Extreme sustained concentration is required for sports such
as triathlon and marathon running.
Mental Rehearsal, visualisation &
• Mental rehearsal, sometimes called visualisation or
mental imagery is the technique of picturing the
performance or skill before executing it.
• It can be used in preparation for any sporting event.
It requires the individual to clearly see (in their
mind) themselves executing the skill or movement
successfully to be of any benefit to a performance.
• This technique is advantageous as it improves
concentration levels, provides the athlete with
additional practice and can remove the need for
total reliance on physical training.
Relaxation Techniques
• Relaxation techniques are a series of techniques that
seek to control the body’s response to stress.
• These techniques assist the athlete in addressing
anxiety and arousal levels.
• Techniques commonly used by athletes include:
- Progressive muscular relaxation.
- Mental relaxation.
- Self-hypnosis.
- Mental rehearsal.
- Meditation.
- Centred breathing.
Goal Setting
• The establishment of goals is important to
improve both individual and team preparation.
• Empowering athletes with the responsibility to
set their own goals, make them more likely to
fulfil them.
• Goals provide athletes with focus, direction and
reasons to persevere with training over extended
period of time.
• Goals can be short/long term, behaviour or
performance oriented.
Goal setting
• Short Term goals: goals that can be achieved in a
limited period of time.
• Long Term goals: goals that can be achieved
over a long period of time.
• Behavioural goals: goals that can improve
behavioural expectation in training/competition.
• Performance goals: goals that are related to an
athlete's desired level of success.