Review for APES Final Exam 1. What is a hotspot (geologically speaking)? What do they do? Where are they found? 2. What is replacement level fertility? 3. What are top 5 most populated countries (and their actual populations)? a. . b. . c. . d. . e. . 4. What are the names of each stage of demographic transition? What occurs in each stage? 5. Know what happens in each stage of the nitrogen cycle; denitrification, assimilation, ammonification, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. 6. Review the characteristics of major biomes – what plants dominate, general temperature and rainfall, etc. a. Tropical rainforest – b. Tundra – c. Desert – d. Savannah - 7. Be able to identify examples of predation, parasitism, competition (both intraspecific and interspecific), commensalism, mutualism between species. Choose 3 to give examples of. 8. Be able to calculate a growth rate (based on groups of _______) and a doubling time. What if you have doubling time, can you determine the growth rate? Show your work! a. CBR = 15, CDR = 7 Growth rate =? b. Growth rate = 1.1%, CBR = 11, CDR =? c. City X has a CBR of 18, a CDR of 11 in a population of 10,000. Determine the growth rate. 9. Know how to read and interpret and age-structure diagram. a. Approximately how many females are under the age of 15? b. How many years ago was there a baby boom in Albania? 10. What is the Green Revolution? What are the 4 cornerstones of it? 11. What happens to energy as you move up a trophic level? Where do producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, decomposers herbivores, and carnivores exist on an energy pyramid? How do they relate to each other? a. Draw an example of a food chain with 4 trophic levels. b. Draw a food web and label the producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. 12. What is the composition of our atmosphere? Gas % in atmosphere 13. Where is road construction, logging and mining banned? a. National parks b. National wildlife refuges c. National forests d. National wilderness preservation areas e. National resource lands 14. What is carrying capacity? Where would it be for moose on this graph? 15. Define climax community… 16. Know the difference between food chains and food webs. 17. Be able to use the soil texture triangle to identify soil types. What type of soil is a mixture of 30% sand, 60% silt, and 10% clay? 18. Know what soil horizons are, and which would contain the most organic material. Label the horizons! 19. What are some characteristics of soil that would describe how productive it is? 20. Know how the Laws of Thermodynamics apply to living things (think energy flow thru a food chain/web) 21. R and K strategists, what makes them different? r k 22. Know how each of these irrigation methods work a. Center pivot irrigation b. Drip irrigation c. Laser level irrigation d. Flood irrigation e. Gravity irrigation 23. When a volcano erupts, does it heat or cool the Earth? Explain… 24. Define Tragedy of the Commons and be able to identify examples of this. 25. Know the difference between primary and secondary succession. 26. Two countries that want whaling bans lifted are ___________and______________.