CHAPTER 17 SOCIAL CHANGE AND COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR SECTION 1: SOCIAL CHANGE SECTION 2: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES I CAN… • 1: …illustrate the three processes that contribute to social change. • 2: …Students can explain how technology, population, natural environment, revolution, and war cause cultures to change. • 3: …Compare and contrast theories of crowd behavior and social movements. SECTION PREVIEW • Social change refers to new behaviors that have long-term and relatively important consequences. Discovery, invention, and diffusion are the major social processes through which social change occurs. Important agents of social change are technology, population, the natural environment, revolution, and war. DEFINING SOCIAL CHANGE • Social Change – new societal behaviors with important longer-term consequences • Can social change be predicted? • Assumptions made by Alexis de Tocqueville – Democracy in America • Major social institutions would continue to exist • Human nature would remain the same • Equality and the trend toward centralized government would continue • The availability of material resources limits and directs social change • Change is affected by the past, but history does not strictly dictate the future • There are no social forces aside from human action. SOCIAL PROCESSES • Influence the pace of social change • Social Processes – series of steps leading to change on a societal level • Discovery, Invention, Diffusion • Forces – factors that may speed up or slow down social change • Technology, Population, The Natural Environment, Revolution and War DISCOVERY • Discovery – the process by which something is learned or reinterpreted • When the earth was discovered to be round, migration patterns, trade, and colonization all changed • Salt first used to flavor food, in some parts of the world it became currency • Fire; prehistoric used for cooking/warmth, later to clear fields, create ash for fertilizer, melt ores to combine into new metals INVENTION • Invention – the creation of something new from previously existing items or processes • Pace of social change through invention is closely tied to how complex the society/culture already is. • More complex = more change DIFFUSION • Diffusion – process by which one culture or society borrows from another culture or society • Extent and rate depend on degree of social contact • More contact, more diffusion • May involved using only part of a borrowed characteristic or trait TECHNOLOGY, POPULATION, NATURAL ENVIRONMENT • Technology – knowledge/tools used to achieve practical goals • New technology can mean future social change • Prime promoter for social change • Population • Size, age, ethnicity/race, etc. • Natural Environment • Natural disasters, control/availability of natural resources REVOLUTION AND WAR • Revolution – sudden and complete overthrow of an existing social or political order • Usually accompanied with violence • Most revolutionaries expect revolutions to lead to change • Radical changes are rarely permanent bc people tend to revert to more familiar customs and behaviors • Following revolutions usually lead to compromise between new/old. • War – organized, armed conflict that occurs within a society or between nations • War includes diffusion, discovery, and invention SECTION 2 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIAL CHANGE Theoretical Perspective Functionalism Conflict Theory Symbolic Interactionism Explanation Concepts Example FUNCTIONALISM AND SOCIAL CHANGE • Equilibrium – a state of functioning and balance, maintained by a society’s tendency to make small adjustments to change • Disruptions will occur, but society will return to a new equilibriums • Hurricane Katrina, 9/11, etc. • Not the same, but a new norm is established CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE AND SOCIAL CHANGE • Change is a result of struggles among groups for resources • Marx: “Without conflict, no progress: this is the law which civilization has followed to present day.” • Social change comes from a multitude of competing interest groups – political, economic, religious, race, ethnic, gender based, etc. • Society changes as power relationships among interest groups change. • Racial groups for equality, environmentalist vs industrialists SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM AND SOCIAL CHANGE • When shared interpretations of the world decrease, social ties weaken and social interaction become more impersonal • Example: change from an agricultural econmy to an industrial one. Accompanied by urbanization and urbanism –way of life shared by people living in the city. CHAPTER 17 SECTION 3,4 • Guided Reading – due by end of period. • May work with a partner or small groups • Will be reviewed and discussed at the beginning of next class period – come prepared to answer questions for possible Extra Credit Points!