Mid-Term Study Guide – Anatomy/Physiology 1

Mid-Term Study Guide – Anatomy/Physiology 1-2 Honors
1. Draw a human body in anatomical position. Indicate where the antecubital region is located with an
Antecubital Region is anterior elbow.
2. What body organs are located lateral to the spine?
Kidneys and Lungs
3. What structures are distal to the knees?
Shin, Ankles, Foot, Toes
4. Describe the location of the following body cavities in relation to the abdominal cavity:
Pelvic – Inferior
Spinal- Dorsal
Cranial - Superior
Thoracic – Directly Superior
5. Define the following planes:
a. Divides the body into right and left sides: Sagittal
b. Divides the body into superior and inferior parts: Transverse
c. Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts: Coronal or Frontal
6. In the following feedback loop, label the Stimulus, Receptor, Control Center (set point), Effector, and
Parathyroid releases the hormone PTH
__Control Center___
Parathyroid Gland
Decrease in blood calcium
Bone is broken down to release calcium into the
7. What is a positive feedback system, and what are some examples?
Childbirth or trauma
8. What is a negative feedback system, and what would be an example?
Temperature regulation
9. When you are dehydrated, what type of feedback mechanism is associated with your condition?
10. Describe the structure and function of the following cell structures:
a. Mitochondria – Provides energy to the cell by producing ATP
b. Cilia – Hairlike structures that move substances in respiratory tract.
11. Sprains are injuries of the ligaments or tendons. What type of tissue are these, and why do they
take so long to heal?
Dense connective tissue has poor blood supply.
12. What is the function of the following types of membranes:
a. Serous b. Mucous – produces mucous
c. Cutaneous - Provides protection in skin
d. Synovial – protects moving joints
13. Students always have to use the restroom during class. What type of tissue lines the urinary bladder
and urethra that keeps signaling for you to ‘go’?
Transitional Epithelium
14. How many layers and what shape of tissue would allow nutrients to pass across the cell membrane?
Layers – Simple
Shape – Squamous
15. What structures are located in the dermis?
Blood vessels, hair, sweat glands, nerves
16. Describe the location and function of the following layers of skin:
a. stratum corneum – most superficial layer, shedding
b. stratum basale
c. stratum spinosum
d. stratum granulosim
17. Whoops! You forgot to shower again, and your armpits smell BAD! What type of gland is
responsible for your funkiness?
18. What controls the color of skin you are born with?
Melanocytes from genetic inheritance
19. What layer of the skin would you find the cells that cause pigment?
20. How does the skin help your skeletal system?
Synthesizing Vitamin D
21. How does the skin and blood vessels respond to hyperthermia (elevated body temperature)?
Blood vessels dialate
Clinical Application Questions:
1. A student comes into the nurse with a blistered burn on his hand. What degree of burn is this?
2. You are a tattoo artist and your client is asking why it is going to hurt during the process?
Explain to your client what layer of the skin you have to place the ink in, and what structures are
located in that layer that would cause pain: