Chapter 2 Reading Assignments

Hannah Parlaman
EDUC 318-Dr. Sessoms
Chapter 2
2) Describe the similarities and differences in the learning theories discussed in this
Behaviorist, Cognitivist, Constructivist, and Social Psychologist are the learning theories
discussed in this chapter. Behaviorists rely on observable behavior above all else for
determining how learning occurs. Following Skinner’s experiments, behaviorism did lead to
improved instruction, however behaviorism has several limitations in today’s classrooms. This is
due to the fact that behaviorists are less likely to make inferences about what goes on
internally, or how students process information. It is all about observation. Cognitivists are the
complete opposite, studying how learners receive, process, and manipulate information.
Opposite to behaviorists, cognitivists study mental processes that students use when
responding to stimuli in an environment. Next, we have the constructivists. This theory goes
beyond the concepts involved with the cognitivist theory in that it involves the engagement of
students in experiential learning to create their own meaningful interpretations of the world.
Constructivists believe that the instructor is not meant to simply dispense facts, but help
students explore ways to assemble and interpret knowledge. Lastly, Social psychologists rely
mostly on social interaction and analyzing how the organization of such affects a student’s
learning. Exploring how students interact with each other or with their instructor does this.
What are the eight principles of effective instruction?
Assess Prior Knowledge
Consider individual differences
State objectives
Develop metacognitive skills
Provide social interaction
Incorporate realistic contexts
Engage students in relevant practice
Offer frequent, timely, and constructive feedback
4) Describe the similarities and differences in the principles of effective technology and
media utilization.
Both effective technology and media utilization require a specific literacy. For Technology,
it’s technology literacy, and for media, it’s media literacy. This means that for effective
utilization in both of these areas, students and teachers alike must recognize the need for this
literacy and comprehend the principles attached with it. Both effective technology and media
utilization also require the teacher to guide students in using these tools to enhance their
learning experience. For technology utilization, the 21st century teacher will be expected to
incorporate technology into the classroom and effectively show students how it can enhance
their learning. Effective media utilization requires the teacher to guide students to find new
sources of information through things like text, television, video, etc., to safely and accurately
verify information. Having these skills will help students to better communicate their