Chapter 6 - Academic Resources at Missouri Western

PED 383: Adapted Physical Education
Dr. Johnson
• Reactive – Applied after the fact
• Punishments
• Time outs
• Detentions
• No recess
• Proactive
• Address situation before problems
• MWSU = Management concerns
• How you set up your class
• Respondent Conditioning
• Automatic control of response by antecedent stimuli
• Operant Conditioning
• Control of behavior by regulating the consequences that follow a
• Contingency management
• Relation between behavior and the events that follow
• Behavior Modeling
• Learning through observing another person engaged in a behavior
• Stimulus
• A measureable event that might have an influence on a behavior
• Reinforcement
• A stimulus event that increases or maintains the frequency of a response
• Positive – rewards  prizes, words, looks
• Negative – An aversive stimuli
• Something the student wants to avoid
• Doesn’t always work.
• Differing views of wanting o avoid the result
• Detention vs attention (bad boy)
• Punishment – decreasing the negative frequency.
• Premack Principle
• Use of highly preferred activities to control the occurrence of a less
preferred response
• Reinforcers
• Primary
• Neede for survival
• Secondary
• Must be learned – grades, money or praise
• Vicarious
• Observing results (positive or negative) when done by others
• Continuous Reinforcement
• Happens every time an occurrence happens
• Ratio Schedules
• Occurs every “X” times something occurs (i.e every 3 times)
• Interval Schedules
• Occurs after a specific amount of time has passed
• Fixed (consistent)
• Variable (non-consistent)
• Shaping
• Administering reinforcement contingent on the learning and performance of sequential steps
leading to development of the desired behavior
• Chaining
• A series of discrete links that lead to enhanced performance of behaviors
• Prompting
• Events that help initiate a response
• Fading
• Stretching the schedule of reinforcements so that the student must perform more trials or
demonstrate significantly better response quality in order to receive reinforcement
• Modeling
• Visual demonstration of a behavior that students are expected to perform
• Token Economy
• Reinforcements based on tokens (rewards)
• Contingency Management
• When teachers change a behavior by providing a stimulus contingent on the occurance of a
desired response.
• Reinforcement of other behaviors
• Reinforcing a student for engaging in any behavior other than the targeted
• Reinforcement of incompatible behavior
• Reinforce the teamwork when they have trouble when eliminating not
• Reinforcement of low response rates
• Rewarded for gradually reducing the behavior
• Punishment
• Type 1 – negative consequence (Detention)
• Type 2 – Removal of a positive (no more Ice Cream)
• Time-out
• Assuming they wanted to do what they were doing
• Considers only behaviors that are precisely defined and
capable of being seen
• Assumes that knowing the intrapsychic cause of a particular
behavior is not a prerequisite for changing it
• Encourages a thorough analysis of the environmental conditions
and factors that might influence the behavior
• Facilitates functional independence by employing a system of
least prompts (least to most intrusive)
• Requires precise measurement to demonstrate a cause and
effect relation between the behavioral interventions and the
behavior being changed
• Actual use of behavioral principles in a consistent and
systematic manner is not as simple as it might seem.
• Behavioral might fail when what is thought to be a controlling
stimulus is not so in reality
• Behavioral techniques might not work initially, requiring more
analysis to determine if other techniques would be helpful.
• Psychoeducational
• Psychodynamic
• Ecological
• Biogenic
• Humanistic
• Views inappropriate behaviors as students maladaptive
attempts to cope with their environment
• It assumes academic failure and misbehavior can be remedied
directly if students are taught how to achieve and behave
• Educate whole student
• Strives to improve emotional functioning by helping students
understand why they are functioning inappropriately
• Accept the student, but not the undesirable behavior
• Develop self-knowledge
• Assumes that the behavioral problems are caused by a
disturbance in the student’s environment or ecosystem
• Student and environment influence each other in a reciprocal
and negative manner
• Students demeanor causes a negative environment and the
environment causes a negative student reaction
• Angry student upsets friends so they do not want to play……friends not
wanting to play with them, causes the student to become angry
• Relies on diagnostic techniques that explore signs and
• Physicians attempt to locate problems
• Drug therapy based on symptoms / signs
• 5 primary human needs
Physiological needs
Belongingness and love
• Humans seek to meet unsatisfied needs at progressively higher
levels as lower needs are met.
• As one need is met, we move to the “next lowest”