CHINA’S ROAD TO COMMUNISM A Preview Modern World History 1600’s - 1912 • Manchus (people of Manchuria – NE China) invaded China & seized power from the Ming Dynasty • They took a Chinese name for their dynasty – Qing Dynasty The Qing Dynasty • Empress Dowager Cixi presented China with a weak central authority • She died in 1908 • Puyi, at age two, was appointed the successor • Puyi became the last emperor of China • Dynasty will fall 1912 Sun Yixian(Yatsen) • Sun Yatsen led the Nationalist Party (also called Kuomintang) • The Nationalists wanted to modernize and democratize China Goals of the Nationalists • Rid China of foreign influence • Set up a democracy • Improve life for all Chinese 1912-1916 • Sun lacked authority & military support. • He turned over the presidency to Yuan Shikai, a powerful general. • Yuan betrayed the democratic ideals of Sun and became a dictator. • Yuan died in 1916; military generals took control. Violence and peasant hardship continued in China. AFTER WWI – The Nationalists • Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) joins Sun and the Nationalist Party. • Promoted economic development: built schools and roads • Did little to improve living standards of the peasants 1925 – Sun Yatsen died Funeral Procession Sun Yatsen Tribute Tiananmen Square Nationalists Take Control 1925 • Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist army defeated the warlords (military generals) and took control of China. Communists Organize • Peasants revolted (sound familiar?) • Communist Party [Mao Zedong –son of peasants] and Red Army made first attempt to take over Nationalist Party – they failed. Nationalists vs. Communists • Chiang Kai-shek began a series of military campaigns to crush the Communists. • “Extermination Campaign” killed 6,000 suspected Communists in 3 days. Communists Surrounded 1934 • Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist Army surround Mao and the Red Army. THE LONG MARCH • Mao and the Red Army retreated and began the Long March – one of greatest escapes in history. The Long March • Retreated to North Central China to escape the Nationalists • 100,000 men, women and children • 6,000 mile journey lasting 1 year • Crossed 18 mountain ranges, dozens of rivers, and swamps • Fought hunger and diseases while fighting off the Nationalists • Approximately one-fifth of the marchers survived World War II • WWII – Japan invaded China. • Mao and Chiang became uneasy allies against the Japanese (a common enemy). • “The enemy of my enemy is my friend.” World War II Ends • WWII ended (1945) • “Civil war” between Chiang (Nationalists) and Mao (Communists) resumed. SHAZAM! Conditions in China Worsen • China’s poverty worsened as a result of WWII. • Many Chinese blamed bad conditions on Chiang and the Nationalists. • Lacking popular support and weakened by corruption, the Nationalist Party collapsed. • Chiang and the Nationalist government flee to off-shore island of Taiwan. The People’s Republic of China • October 1st, 1949 • Mao Zedong, Chairman of China’s Communist Party proclaims the new People’s Republic of China.