Chapter 31/Section 1 The Emergence of Modern China China’s Beginnings • The Emergence of Modern China • China has been rooted in agriculture since its beginnings. – Began along the Huang He River in northern China around 3000 B.C. • Confucianism guided emperors who considered themselves the fathers of the people. – Their main responsibilities were to see to the people’s needs and rule by setting an example of fairness. • Technology, both military and civilian was looked down upon, due to the use of mass population in both areas. • Mid 1800’s, the lack of military technology allowed western powers to influence China. – United States and other European powers. • These powers upset internal trade network of China. – Rebellions broke out across the country and a period of turmoil follows. The March to Communism • By 1900 China had been separated into spheres of influence. – Areas in which foreign powers had some political and economic control. • To change this, the people of China advocated three ways of doing so: – One train of thought was to drop Chinese culture and adopt Western ways altogether. – A second choice was to reject the West entirely. – The last choice was to adopt certain Western ideals, such as technology to preserve tradition and culture. March to Communism (Continued) • In 1911, after a series of revolts, a new party called the Nationalists party forced the emperor of China to abdicate. – The Nationalists declare China a republic with Sun Yat-sen as their first President. • Sun Yat-sen had been educated in the US. He wished to adopt Western democratic practices. Struggle for Power • During the 1920’s, Sun Yat-sen dies and a new leader named Chaing Kai-shek comes to power. – Fighting breaks out between the Nationalists and local warlords. • Chaing is a trained soldier, and forms a disciplined Nationalist army. He defeats warlord after warlord. – After finally controlling most of the country, he establishes himself as president of the Republic of China. The Long March • In the late 20’s the Nationalist party began to fracture. Some had started to adopt Communist beliefs. – Those who adopted Communism believed that Communism would solve the foreign intervention in China by a worker’s revolution. • Chaing Kai-shek ordered those who believed in Communism to be shot. – Those who survived the purge built a stronghold in Jiangxi, which was attacked in 1933 by Kai-shek. – This forced the Communists on a 6,000 mile trek called the Long March. The Long March (Continued) • Disease, hunger, and constant attacks by the Nationalists took their toll. – Of the 100,000 that had started out on the march, only 8,000 safely made the trip to Shaanxi. • There, the Communists safely established a new headquarters under the leadership of Mao Zedong. Communists Take Over • The Japanese invasion during World War II forced both the Communists and the Nationalists to join forces and defeat the invaders. – After the war ends, the sides continue fighting in the Chinese Civil War. – During the war, Mao established many reforms which aimed at influencing the peasants of China to join the Communist cause. – The Nationalists were defeated in 1949, and Chaing Kai-shek flees the mainland to Taiwan. – Mao and his Communists establish the People’s Republic of China. A Communist Nation • After both World War II and the Chinese Civil War, much of China laid in ruins. – Mao still invoked more reforms to increase agriculture. – Mao believed that replacing private ownership with collective farms coupled with modern technology would multiply the agricultural output. – By 1956, 110 million families (82% of peasants) worked on collective farms.