Force, Balance, Agriculture

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TIMMY
By: Jonah Johnson
Grand High Poobah Daniel Savage MCJIMOTHY
Spencer Hafen
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The textbook defines Agriculture as the deliberate
modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plans
and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.
THE TEXTBOOK IS CLEARLY A SACRED SOURCE OF INFORMATION, REVERED BY ALL.
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Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
Second Agricultural Revolution
The Green Revolution
◦ Also known as the Third Agricultural Revolution
 THE MOST INNOVATIVE NAME IN HISTORY
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Neolithic Agricultural Revolution was
the transition of people converting from a
Hunting and Gathering society to one that
is Agrarian and settles in one place for a
long period of time.
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Southwest Asia
◦ Thought to have domesticated barley and wheat
◦ Domesticated cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and dogs
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Yangtze River (China)
◦ Rice
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Yellow River
◦ Millet
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Central Africa
◦ Sorghum and Yams
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Mexico
◦ Beans and Cotton
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Peru
◦ Potatoes
◦ Domesticated llamas
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South-Eastern United States
◦ Squash
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Due to Agriculture developing in multiple hearths it follows
different diffusion paths.
Central America
◦ Diffused North into present day U.S. and Canada
◦ Diffused south along the West Coast of South America.
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Central Africa
◦ Diffused in all sorts of directions.
◦ Diffused north into present day Egypt
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South-Western Asia
◦ Diffused along the Mediterranean Sea into Africa and Europe
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Eastern Asia
◦ Diffused throughout China
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The Second Agricultural Revolution was the introduction of
machinery and large labour forces into the growing and
gathering process.
It changed crop rotation systems
Made technological innovations
Was along side the Industrial Revolution
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Crop Rotation can be explained with a set of fields
◦ Each field was designated a specific crop
◦ Each crop could only be planted at certain times in the year
◦ Farmers had to rotate fields for farming
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The oldest crop rotation was the two-field crop rotation
developed in Northern Europe sometime in the fifth century
During the Second Agricultural Revolution a four-field crop
rotation was introduced
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The four fields are labeled A, B, C, and D
Field A
◦ Used to grow a root crop such as turnips
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Field B
◦ Used to grow rest crops such as clovers
 Rest Crops are used to restore the land
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Field C
◦ Field C grows Cereals such as wheat or barley
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Field D
◦ And another root field for D
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The Second Agricultural Revolution introduced many
technological advances
Tractors
Combines
Corn Pickers
Planters
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The introduction of machinery made farming much easier
More people moved into the city which, in turn, lowered the
labour force
Four-Field System
Larger Population which means more food is needed
Less land is able to be used for farming
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Two Main Practices
◦ Introduction of new higher-yield seeds
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Many benefits
In contrast, many drawbacks
Currently taking place in
◦ South Asia
◦ Indonesia
◦ Africa
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The Miracle Wheat Seed
◦ A wheat seed that grows faster
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Efficient Fertilizers
◦ Nitrogen
◦ Phosphorus
◦ Potassium
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Pesticides
◦ Kills bugs that can ruin the crops
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Unnatural crops
◦ Most (if not all) of our food is genetically modified in one way or
another
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Pests and Weeds can develop immunities to Pesticides
◦ If a pesticide is used repeatedly for too long the thing you are trying to
kill becomes immune
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Very expensive
Overuse of fertilizer
◦ Land use makes it so that we need to use more fertilizer to sustain the
crops
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Due to the Green Revolution farmers in South Asia had a huge
increase in wheat production
◦ When the miracle seed was introduced India had a surplus of wheat to
export all over the world
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South Asia’s population increased greatly
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The main point is that Africa needs the Green Revolution
It produces a plethora of food
It generates a much higher income for the countries involved
It creates jobs
The Green Revolution could potentially solve a lot of Africa’s
problems
◦ Hunger
◦ Economy
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Biotechnology
◦ GMOs are more common now due to Biotechnology
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Spatial Organization
◦ Technology
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Seeds
Pesticides
Fertilizers
Irrigation Systems
◦ Globalization
 Spreading agricultural ideas around the world at a much quicker pace
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Environmental Impacts
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Deforestation
Desertification
Soil Erosion
Water Quality
Transportation
Fossil Fuel Consumption
Fishery Depletion
Aquaculture
Spencer and Jonah had nothing to do with the following
section.
WARNING: The following section may contain Comic Sans MS and similar atrocities. Eyes may bleed
for parts. We apologize for any inconvenience. We would also like to condone the use of the fonts
representing the various types of agriculture that occur in LDCs. In addition, I would like to inform you
that any use of Comic Sans MS will result in shanking/bludgeoning. Thank you, and good luck. They’re all dead.
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Will be represented by Comic
Sans, an abomination upon
existence
More common in LDCs
To provide food for survival of
the farmer by consumption
More work per unit of land
Less Yield per unit of land
Minimal Technology
Subsistence
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Will be represented by Times New
Roman, the only true font
Prevalent in MDCs
Crops are grown for sale, to profit the
farmer
Hundreds of acres are worked by only
a few farmers
High Yields
Extensive use of technology
Commercial
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Smaller Farms
About 50% of labor force are
farmers
Minimal relationship to other
buisinesses
Gramerr are hard
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◦ In North America it gets as low as 2%
 Now make fun of Europe
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Subsistence Sans
Sprawling Farms
About 5% of the labor force are
farmers
Agribusiness dominates commercial
agriculture
Does not everyone not appreciate a
lack of double negatives
Times New Commercial
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Do not go to 4chan!.
Types
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Shifting Cultivation
Pastoral Nomadism
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
Plantation Farmin’
Imma go troll 4chan (this is similar
to peeing in the ocean)
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The authors of this presentation
Daniel supports Reddit, but does not
condone use of the calamity known
as Pinterest.
Types
◦ Mixed Crop and Livestock
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Dairy
Grain
Livestock Ranching
Mediterranian Agriculture
Horticulture
Pintrest has been described as “a
watered-down Reddit for girls”
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Farm until soil no
longer fertile
Humid Low- Latitude
Farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the
debris
Each swidden- a portion of land used for shifting cultivation- is used for
only 3 or less years and left fallow for much longer
~25% of world’s land area|~5% of the world people
Is inefficient, but relatively sustainable
Central America has a lot of this
Move to
new
area
Area
Designated
Remove
Vegetation
Plant by hand
Clear growth by
hand and
burning
Shifting Cultivation
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A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding
domesticated animals
In arid areas of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and North Africa
◦ Common in dry climates because there is lots of unused land
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Do not kill anmimals
◦ Often choose sheep, camels, goats, or Horses in Central Asia
◦ Various methods of obtaining grains
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Territorial; will war over land
Practice transhumance, which should have been discussed by
Ian and Jacob
Are hard to govern, so they are disliked
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Requires a large amount of work
Is practiced primarily in East, South, and Southeast Asia
Wet rice dominant
◦ Sawah- the flooded field in which rice is grown
◦ Double Cropping- occurs in places with warm winters, like China and Taiwan
◦ Terraces are made on hills and mountains
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Non- Wet Rice Dominant
Grains like wheat and barley
Crop rotation
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Tropics and Sub-tropics
Latin America, Africa and Asia
In sparsely settled parts of LDCs
Owned by Europeans and North Americans
Cash crops: cotton, rubber, tobacco, sugar, coffee, bananas, drugs
Imported workers
A large farm that specializes in 1 or 2 crops
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In US and much of Europe
While most of the land is used for crop growing, >75% of the money comes from the livestock
Crop Rotation
◦ Cereal Grains
◦ Fallow
◦ Rest Crop
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Most of the crops are fed to the animals
How many people in this class won the corn challenge?
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Countries in order of dairy production: India, U.S.A., China, Pakistan, Russia
Milkshed- the ring around a city from which milk can be supplied without
spoiling
Some regions specialize in dairy products because they are too far away to
supply plain milk to a city
Problems
◦ Labor intensive
◦ Winter feed is expensive
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Moo.
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Crops are grown for human consumption, not animal feed
Wheat is a very valuable, versatile crop
Wheat Belts
◦ Winter- Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma
◦ Spring- Dakotas, Montana, part of Canadia
◦ Palous Region- Washington, little people
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Reaper and Combine allowed large scale wheat production
Wheat, barley, rye, other stuff
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Semiarid/arid land is cheaper and therefore better
Stages
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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7.
Introduction and establishment
Open range and cattle drives
Fixed location ranching
MMOOOOOOOOOOOOO
Cows
???
Profit
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Is bordering a sea
◦ Hot, dry summers and mild winters
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Horticulture- growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
For human food. Eat it.
Olives and Grapes are the two most important crops
California does moar horticulture than other places
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U.S. is ideal for the following reasons:
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Long growing season
Humidity, which you crackpots do not have
Access to large cities
Not sucking
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Truck Farmers
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Specialty Farming- type of truck farming where people
grow crops with limited demand. They provide a
shortcut to the mushrooms.
◦ Another name for the above
◦ Sell crops to large processors and consumers in developed
societies
◦ Keep low labor costs by hiring migrant workers, all the
technologies, and specialization. Are you special? Lol, nup
End of this Section.
Spencer’s Section.
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Von Thunen’s Model shows the relative location of different types of agriculture
surrounding a market based off of the cost of transportation, land price, and how
long the product remains fresh.
Von Thunen’s Model assumes that:
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There are no other markets nearby
The land is completely uniform
Climate and Soil Quality are uniform
Farmers behave rationally
Due to the fact that Von Thunen’s model was made before trains/cars/airplanes
were invented, the model is not as applicable today as it was when it was originally
made.
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Boserup’s Theory states that as population gets higher, food
productivity will increase to keep up with it.
Three Points:
◦ Higher Population=Larger Workforce
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