Chapter 12.3 The Beginnings of Agriculture About 10,000 years ago the Earth warmed. This climate change allowed humans to plant seeds and raise livestock. Before this environmental change we were a hunter-gatherer society. Traditional Agriculture Industrial Revolution Biologically powered agriculture Cultivating, harvesting, storing, distributing crops by human and animal muscle power, hand tools Does not require fossil fuels Uses organic fertilizer, teams of worker animals, and irrigation Industrial Agriculture Mechanized farming technology, manufactured chemicals, use of fossil fuels, and irrigation Produces huge amounts of crops and livestock Monoculture = single crop High-input agriculture because it relies on people to put in enormous quantities of energy, water, and chemicals The Green Revolution Mid 1900’s Norman Borlaug – father of green revolution Agricultural scientists from developed nations introduced new technology, crop varieties, and farming practices to the developing world. Synthetic fertilizers, chemical pesticides, liberal irrigation of crops, use of heavy equipment powered by fossil fuels Food production rose 150%, prevented deforestation, habitat loss, and preserved the biodiversity of some ecosystems *Agriculture relies on pollinators such as insects, hummingbirds, & bats. Bees & other insects pollinate over 800 species of cultivated plants. Chemical pesticides & parasites have reduced pollinator populations. Pollinators help agriculture by transferring pollen from one flower to another. Without pollinators, fruit plants and other crops would not be able to reproduce. * The amount of a crop produced – the harvest – is known as the crop’s yield. *Integrated pest management – Using a combination of techniques such as biological pest control, habitat alteration, crop rotation, mechanical pest removal, and chemical pesticides to control pests *Biological pest control is using living things that control pests by eating or infecting them. It is a permanent solution but harms pests it was not intended for.