Mellitus Type 1
By Sheryl Heichel
What is Type 1 Diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes, also referred to as juvenile
diabetes, is a disease in which the pancreas
does not secrete insulin.
The exact cause is unknown, but thought to
have genetic and environmental factors.
Most often occurs in childhood, but can also
develop late 30's and early 40's.
Caused by autoimmune destruction of the
insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of
Langerhans in the pancreas.
Hyperglycemia presents after the majority
of cells are destroyed and then diabetes
can be diagnosed.
Pathophysiology Continued
In 85% of cases, the individual has islet cell
antibodies present; glutamic acid
decarboxylase is the enzyme most
commonly targeted by these antibodies.
Type 1 diabetes is often found in those
already suffering from an autoimmune
Signs and Symptoms
Diagnosed through a blood or ketone test.
Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss,
increased blood and urine glucose and
ketones. Left untreated it can be fatal.
Hypoglycemia : seizures, hunger, fainting,
weakness, coma.
Hyperglycemia: increased thirst and urination,
ketoacidosis(vomiting, dry skin, abdominal
pain, rapid breathing), coma, organ damage.
Insulin must be used to process the glucose from
meals and normalize protein and lipid metabolism.
Injections or pumps are used.
Types of insulin:
Rapid-acting: works about 15 minutes after
injecting; works for 2-4 hours
Regular or short acting: ~30 after injecting; works
for 3-6 hours
Intermediate-acting: 2 to 4 hours after injecting;
works for 12-18 hours
Long-acting: takes several hours but keeps levels
even over a day
American Diabetes Association, A. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http://www.diabetes.org/living-withdiabetes/treatment-andcare/medication/insulin/insulin-routines.html
American Diabetes Association. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Retrieved from
Tortora, Gerard J., and Bryan Derrickson. Principles of
Anatomy & Physiology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2012. Print.