Flexibility Training

{ Flexibility Training
Flexibility or limberness refers to
the absolute range of movement in
a joint or series of joints, and
length in muscles that cross the
joint a to induce a bending
movement or motion.
There are four different
types of Flexibility training:
• Static
• Ballistic
• Dynamic
• PNF (proprioceptive
Involves holding, without bouncing, a
stretched position at the the end of a
movement for a short period of of time (15-20
secs). At this point there should be a feeling
that the muscle is being stretched, but there is
no pain or discomfort. Static stretching
enhances joint mobility, improves
performance and reduces the likelihood of
Static stretching can be used by
virtually anyone; it is easily taught and
usually very safe. Once learned, it can
be performed in almost any
environment without any external
equipment or assistance.
Static stretching will improve flexibility at a
specific body position and only to a small
degree outside of that position, limiting its
effectiveness for athletes or those wanting to
increase flexibility in multiple ROMs. It is best
suited to noncompetitive clients or as a
complement to other methods of flexibility
Aims to gradually warm up 
muscle groups that cross
over joints through gentle
repetition of the type of
movements that will be
experienced in the
performance, with a gradual
increase in the range of
An example of Dynamic
Stretching is arm circling
used to warm up the
shoulder for cricket bowling
or swimming; or swinging a
golf club just before making
a shot.
It is not safe as static
stretching or PNF stretching
due to the tension that is
exerted by specific
movements on muscles
across the joint. However,
many prefer to use it just
before the game because its
movements stimulate those
required in the game.
Active or Range Movement (ROM)
stretching - Uses movement speed together with
momentum to imitate movements to specific
Involves a bouncing action at the end of a range of movement. Due to the
force of the stretch, the stretch reflex comes into play and places great
pressure on the muscle fibers causing greater risk of injury.
Can be useful for elite athletes or performances where ballistic and
explosive actions are required. In these cases it should form part of the
third-stage of warm up after a general warm-up, a static stretch period
and an active stretch period.
E.G – touching toes to stretch hamstrings by using bouncing movements.
On each movement, the athlete attempts to touch the ground/toes by
using body weight or gravity to assist in the stretch.
Effective in
range of
Increased risk of injury when performed
before strength or endurance training.
Involves lengthening a muscle
against a resistance usually
provided by another person. It is a
static stretch followed by an
isometric contraction held for 6
seconds (where a muscle develops
force or tension without changing
length), another static stretch. This
action is repeated 3-4 times.
PNF(Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation)
improve performance?
Flexibility improves our
performance by allowing a
greater range of movement. A
greater range of movement
allows the athlete to be able to
perfect their technique in their
sport in which, improves their