Flexibility and Athletic Performance General flexibility guidelines Range of Motion (ROM) Range that a joint can be moved (flexion & extension) Form can be altered with decreased ROM, reducing biomechanical efficiency and creating a climate for athletic injuries General flexibility guidelines Benefits of flexibility Decreased risk of injury Reduced muscle soreness Improved muscular balance and postural awareness General flexibility guidelines Proper timing Before activity dynamic stretching is best After activity use static stretching, be achieved greatest gains can Flexibility methods Static Stretching Stretching to a comfortable position and holding for a period of time. No motion should be forced, no bouncing Hold stretch for 10-30 seconds (longer time, less intensity) Should be used at the end of a training session Static Stretches Calf Hamstring Quadriceps Hips/Groin Low Back Abdominals Flexibility methods Ballistic stretching Use of body momentum to bounce at the end range of a stretch Has been shown to increase flexibility; however there is the potential to cause musculoskeletal injuries Not generally recommended. Flexibility methods Dynamic stretching Active muscular effort are used to propel the muscle into an extended range of motion Functional based exercises, use sport specific movements to prepare the body for training Beneficial way to warm up prior to training Flexibility methods Why Dynamic over Static or Ballistic? Benefits Increases core temperature & peripheral blood flow Elongates muscles and tendons Enhances coordination, motor learning, & proprioception Incorporates balance WE LIVE IN A DYNAMIC AND MOVING ENVIRONMENT! Dynamic Stretches continued… High Knees Butt Kicks Straight Leg Kicks Leg Swings Inch Worms Lunge walk w/Trunk Rotations Lateral Lunges Backward Skips Forward/backward Hip Rotation Spiderman Flexibility methods Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Muscles to be stretched is first contracted maximally The muscle is then relaxed and is either actively stretched by contraction of the opposing muscle or is passively stretched Two types Contract/Relax Hold/Relax Rapid beneficial increases, but best done with someone who is trained. Flexibility methods Hold/Relax Movement does not occur Athlete stretches to a comfortable position Apply force against the resistance of a partner Holds the isometric contraction for 10-15 seconds Move to a new stretch position beyond the original starting point Process is repeated 2-3 times *Rapid, beneficial increases in flexibility can be obtained through PNF stretching Flexibility methods Contract/Relax Passively stretch until resistance is felt Contract the muscles against resistance from a partner Move through a resisted range of motion Move to a new stretch position beyond the original stretch Process is repeated 2-3 times Flexibility methods Slow Reversal Hold Relax Passively stretch until a resistance is felt Apply force against the resistance of a partner Holds the isometric contraction for 10-15 seconds Actively have patient move to a new stretch position beyond the original starting point by flexing hip, hold for 10 seconds Process is repeated 2-3 times Pair up into groups (3 per group) Complete PNF flexibility Lab before end of class.