Final Exam PPT

Basic Concepts of Strength Development
What is Strength?
Muscular Strength: ability of a muscle or group of
muscles to generate force
• Absolute strength: maximal amount of force that can be
generated during 1 maximal effort.
• Dynamic strength: ability of a muscle to contract
repeatedly over a period of time.
Muscular Endurance: ability to contract muscles
many times without tiring or to hold one
contraction for a long time
Elements of Muscular Fitness
Strength: ability to exert force
Endurance: ability to continue work over an extended period of time
(Cardiovascular endurance is most important, why?)
Flexibility: ability to move easily through complete normal ranges of
motion around a joint
What is Muscle?
• Made up of 75% water and 25% protein.
3 types of muscle:
1.) Smooth: walls of internal
organs, stomach and blood
2.) Cardiac: heart
3.) Skeletal: attach to bones
making movement possible
Roles Muscles Play
• Agonist: Prime mover, muscle primarily responsible to produce
• Antagonist: Muscle in opposition to the agonist.
• Stabilizers: Hold the joint steady while other muscles produce
movement. Aid in the contraction.
• Neutralizers: Muscles that contract to prevent unwanted action.
Bench Press
Agonist: Pecs, Triceps
Antagonist: Lats
Stabilizers: Anterior Deltoids
Neutralizers: Forearms
Types of Muscle Contractions
Isometric (static)
- No movement occurs at
the joint although force is
When is the muscle at it’s
Isotonic (dynamic)
General Training Principles
• The Principle of Overload: the body will function better
if increased demands are placed upon it
F= Frequency
I= Intensity
T= Time
General Training Principles
• The principle of progression: Allows you to increase your
workload when your body adapts to the current load.
• The principle of specificity: Occurs when specific exercises
are done that closely resemble the specific activities
General Training Terms
• Repetitions (reps) – the number of
consecutive times you do an exercise
• Set – one group of repetitions
• Hypertrophy – increase in muscle size
• Atrophy – decrease in muscle size
• Resistance – a force that acts against
your muscles
• 1 rep max (1RM) – amount of weight
lifted one time
• Plyometrics- develops power with
explosive movements
10 Principles of Resistance Exercise
1.) Warm-up: Light running, light lifting, dynamic stretching to help
improve blood flow and flexibility, & to reduce chance of injury.
2.) Exercise Range of Motion: To strengthen entire muscle, complete
exercise through fullest possible range of motion that the joint allows.
Muscle is conditioned through its entire length.
3.) Exercise Speed: It should take approx. 1 sec. to complete every 90
degrees of joint motion.
4.) Breathing: Exhale during concentric phase (POSITIVE PHASE) of
exercise. Inhale during eccentric phase (NEGATIVE PHASE). Ex. Bench
Press: Exhale to push, Inhale to bring bar back down. Why we breathe
10 Principles of Resistance Exercise
5.) Recommended # of Repetitions:
Strength: more weight less reps (3-5 reps per exercise – 80%-90% of MAX)
Endurance: Less weight more reps (13-25 reps per exercise – 50%-60% of
Combination: benefits in strength and endurance (6-12 reps per exercise
– 65%-75% of MAX)
Pyramid System: decrease reps while increase weight
6.) Rest Between Sets: 60 to 90 seconds of rest, may vary w/ the
individual and/or exercise intensity.
7.) Rest Between Repetitions: When applicable, a 1-2 second pause is
recommended between each repetition.
10 Principles of Resistance Exercise
8.) Recommended # of Sets: dependent upon the fitness level and
intensity. Generally, 1-3 sets of exercise are recommended per body
9.) Increasing Workload: The rule of thumb is to increase the weight load
by 2-5% when progression is to take place. This normally occurs when
the final repetitions of the last performed set are completed easily.
10.) Exercise Intensity: The goal is to achieve momentary muscle failure
on each set. Momentary muscle failure refers to total fatigue or failure
on the final predetermined repetition of each set.
• Carbohydrates (60% total kcal) are the body’s primary source of energy.
Fat (stored energy)
• Protein: repair and build muscle and all body systems
• When weight training, a general rule, 1 gram of protein per pound of body
• Fat (20% kcal): Energy (storage), heat, body structure.
• Creatine
• Androstenodione is converted intro a steroid once in the body.
• Anabolic steroids increase testosterone. Many health risks are associated
with taking anabolic steroids.
• H2O= Most Important Nutrient
• Taking excessive amounts of vitamins can be harmful; use both diet and
exercise to lose weight
Anterior Deltoid
Pectoralis Major
Rectus Abdominis
Biceps Brachaii
External Oblique
Adductor Muscles
Posterior Deltoid
Latissimus Dorsi
Biceps Femoris
Calf Muscles
Triceps Brachii
Gluteus Maximus
General Strength Training Exercises
• Exercise:
• Arm curls:
• Muscles Developed:
• Biceps, brachialis
• Arm extensions:
• Triceps
• Military press:
• Deltoids, triceps
• Lat pull down:
• Latissimus dorsi, trapezius, deltoids
• Bent knee sit-up:
• Rectus abdominis
• Side bends:
• Internal & external obliques
• Bench press:
• Pectoralis major, triceps, deltoids
• Squat / leg press:
• Gluteals, hamstrings, quadriceps
• Leg curl:
• Hamstrings
• Rows:
• Trapezius, latissimus dorsi, deltoids