Chapter 3. 8-E. Science Working with solutions. Suspension: mixtures in which particles can be seen and easily separated. Solution: a well mixed mixture. Solvents and solutes. Solvent: the part of a solution, present and largest amount. Solute: a substance that is present in a smaller dissolved by the solvent. Water is the universal solvent. Many solutions can be made from gases or solids. Particles in a solution. Whenever a solution forms, particles of the solute leave each other and become surrounded by particles of the solvent. Ionic solids and water- water molecules surround each ion as it leaves the surface of a crystal. Molecular solids and water- molecular solids break into individual neutral molecules. Solutions & conductivity- if ions are present it’s ionic and conducts electricity, otherwise it’s covalent and does NOT conduct electricity. Concentration. Dilute Solutions- when only a little solute dissolves in water. Concentrated Solution- it has more solute, dissolves in water. Solubility. A measure of how much a solute can dissolve in a solvent in a given temperature. Saturated solution- when you’ve added so much solute that no more dissolves. Unsaturated Solution- where you can dissolve more solute. Changing Solubility. The factors that effect the solubility of a substance include: temperature, and type of solvent. Temperature- increase add more solute. Solvents: like substances dissolve. (ionic dissolves ionic, covalent dissolves covalent.) Effects of solutes on solutions. Solutes lower the freezing point, and raise the boiling point. Describing Acids and Bases. Properties of Acid include: sour taste, reacts with metals and carbonates, and changes blue litmus changes red. Corrosive- eat way at other materials. Indicators- a compound that changes color, in the presence of a acid or base. Properties of bases. The properties of bases include: bitter taste, slippery feeling, & reaction with indicators. Acids and bases in solution. Hydrogen ion: an atom of hydrogen that has lost its electron. Positive charge An acid is any substance that forms a hydrogen ion in water. Hydroxide ion: polyatomic made of oxygen and hydrogen ( O H -) A base is any substance that forms any hydroxide substance in water. Strengths of acids and bases pH scale-a series of numbers from zero to 14. Measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. When the pH is low the concentration of hydrogen ions is high. when the pH is high the concentration of hydrogen ions is low. Acid rain Normal rain has a pH of approximately 5.5, acid rain has a pH between 3 to 3.5. Acid base reactions- when you mix an acid and a base you get a salt or a neutralized mixture with a pH of 7. A neutralized reaction produces water and salt. Digestion and pH Digestion- the breaking down of foods into simpler substances that the body can use for raw materials and energy. Mechanical digestion- Tears, grinds and mashes large food particles into smaller ones. Chemical digestion- Breaks larger molecules into smaller molecules using enzymes and acids. pH in the digestion system For some digestive enzymes the pH must be low, and for others it must be high or neutral. Mouth- Enzyme amylase, pH is neutral. Stomach- Hydrochloric acid and pepsin, pH is acidic. Small intestine- pH level is 8/basic.