Caveats - Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice

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Leaving No Child Behind (or out of school): Effective Approaches to

Preventing Poor School and Community

Outcomes and Promoting Healthy

Development

David Osher, Ph.D.

Center for Effective Collaboration & Practice, The American

Institutes for Research www.air.org/cecp

Outline

Resources

Leave No Child Behind

Relationship Between Schools, Communities,

& Effective Prevention Strategies

3 Level Approach

Choosing Evidence-based Interventions

14 Ingredients

www.air.org/cecp

Where To Go For:

Resources,

Links,

Overheads, &

Updates

Center For Effective

Collaboration & Practice

Safe, Drug Free, & Effective Schools: What Works

Addressing Student Problem Behavior (3 parts plus video)

Teaching and Working With Children with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges (Sopris West)

Early Warning, Timely Response

Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide

Safe, Supportive, & Successful Schools: Step by Step

(Sopris West)

Promising Practices in Children’s Mental Health (13 vols.)

Exploring the Relationship between and Juvenile

Justice Outcomes (7 vols.).

Relevant AIR TA & Research

Centers

Behavioral Health Technical Assistance Center

(SAMHSA)

Safe and Drug Free School Coordinators TA Center

(SDFS)

Neglected and Delinquent Youth TA & Evaluation

Center (Office of Elementary and Secondary

Education)

Technical Assistance Partnership for Child and Family

Mental Health (SAMHSA)

Center for Integrating Prevention and Education

Research (NIH).

Relevant AIR Evaluation

Studies

Gates Small School Initiative

California Class-size Initiative

Eisenhower Professional Development

Program

Consumer’s Guide to School Reform

Alternative Education

Early Childhood Behavior

AIR-LFA Partnership.

No Child Left Behind

The Logic of Leaving No Child

Behind

Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska

The Old View I: Blame the Fish

Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska

The Old View II: Blame the Fish’s

Mother, Family, or Community

Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska

Key Provisions in relationship to

Principles of Effectiveness & Coordinated

3-Level Approach

Increased Accountability ( see

Evaluation

& Chapter 1 )

Performance Measures;

Annual testing 3-8

Annual statewide progress objectives

Disaggregate by

Poverty

Race

Ethnicity

Disability

LEP

States required to establish uniform data system on school safety & drug use.

Key Provisions in relationship to

Principles of Effectiveness & Coordinated

3-Level Approach

Focus on Evidenced-Based Interventions ( see

Effective, Science-based Strategies &

Appendix A )

Specifies Principles of Effectiveness

E.g., What Works Clearing House.

Leaving No Child Behind:

Provisions

Key

Parental & Student Choice (see Parent

& Community Involvement & Chapters

1, 3 )

Academic Failure

Persistently Dangerous Schools

Victims of Violent Crime.

Leaving No Child Behind: Other

Relevant Provisions

Expansion of School Counseling

Demonstration Programs to Secondary School

Expansion of who can “counsel”

Counseling where students need it – not just at school

SDF $, After-school $, school emergency assistance $ can be used for counseling and mental health services.

Leaving No Child Behind:

Provisions

Key

Increased Flexibility (see Risk &

Protective & Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 )

Transfer to Title 1 or other programs <

50% of monies under :

Teacher Quality State Grants

Safe and Drug-Free Schools

Innovative Programs

Educational Technology.

Relationship Between Schools,

Communities, & Effective Prevention

Strategies

Does Prevention Make a Difference?

3

2

1

0

6

5

4

Antisocial

Personality

Disorder

Drug Use

GBG No

GBG

Impact of Good Behavior Game in 1 st

& 2 nd

Grade on most aggressive children at ages 19-21.

Where to Look

Risk Factors

Individual

Social (Family, Peers)

Institutional (Schools;

Facilities)

Societal

Protective Factors

Individual

Social

Institutional

Societal

Where To Intervene ?

Societal

Macrosystems

Proximal

Social Contexts

Close

Interpersonal

Relations

Individual

Factors

A nested ecological system of influences on youth behavior. Adapted from “Prevention of

Delinquency: Current status and issues” by P. H.

Tolan and N. G. Guerra, 1994, Applied and

Preventive Psychology, 3, p. 254.

Prevention

Where to Intervene

Child

Welfare

Youth

Development

Justice

Heath

Substance

Abuse

Services

Schools

Mental

Health

Recreation

18

PREVENTION OVER TIME AND SPACE: INTEGRATING

PREVENTION SCIENCE STRATEGIES

DEVELOPMENTAL

EPIDEMIOLOGY: directed at early proximal targets

INTEGRATED

STRATEGIES

COMMUNITY

PREVENTION: directed at community

& school proximal targets

MORE IMMEDIATE

RISK: directed at more recent proximal targets

COMMUNITY /

SOCIETAL: directed at policies & laws as proximal targets

Sheppard G. Kellam, M.D.

Do Teachers Have an

Impact?

58.7

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

2.7

Odds ratio

The Impact of First Grade Teacher Capacity on 7 th

Grade Behavior

(Kellam, Ling, Merisca, Brown, & Ialongo, 1998)

Well-managed standard classroom

Chaotic standard classroom

Do Principals Have an

Impact?

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Out of School

Suspension

Advancement Project, 2000

In-school

Suspension

G.W. Carver

North Dade

Does Race Have an

Impact?

40

30

20

10

0

70

60

50

Black White

South Carolina School Crime Incident Report, 1998-99

Disturbing School

Weapons

Drugs

Threatening Official

Linking School Safety & School

Improvement

School-wide

Team

Principal

Teacher

Mental Health

Professional

Student Support

Team

Dwyer & Osher, 2000

Address the Whole Child

Understand the Links Between

Psychological, Social, Ethical, and

Academic Development

Improve Learning

Improve Behavior

Improve Behavior

Improve Learning

Connect with Every Child:

National Longitudinal

Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health)

Students who Feel Connected:

Less likely to use alcohol or substances

Experience less emotional distress

Attempt suicide less

Engage in less deviant and violent behavior

Blum, 2001

Provide Individualized

Intensive Supports

Provide coordinated, intensive, sustained, culturally appropriate, child and family focused services and supports.

Intervene Early

Create services and supports that address risk factors and build upon protective factors for students at risk for severe academic or behavioral difficulties.

Build a Schoolwide Foundation

Support positive discipline, academic successes and mental/emotional wellness: Positive school climate, full-services-school, appropriate individualized instruction, social skills training, and strong family involvement

.

Building Blocks

Few

Some

Intensive Intervention

Early Intervention

All

Foundation

Universal Intervention

Adapted from: National Resource Center for Safe Schools

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory - 101 SW Main Street, Suite 500 Portland, Oregon 97204

The Logic of Universal

Intervention

• You cannot identify all at risk

• Children affect each others’ behavior and development

• No stigma

• No self-fulfilling prophecies

• No homogenous grouping

• Per Child Cost Less.

All

Universal Interventions

Connect with Every Child

Small schools;

Well managed classrooms;

Positive (not harsh) discipline policies;

Overlapping and integrated social groups;

Impact of the Child Development Project

See

Every Child Learning: Safe and

Supportive Schools

(Learning First Alliance)

See Child Development Project ( Appendix A ).

Blum, 2001

Support Family-School

Collaboration

Valuing all families;

Effective outreach (e.g., FAST);

Culturally competent approaches (e.g.,Lincoln

Elementary School, Salt Lake City);

Support for family participation (e.g., Keyes for Networking); and

Positive interactions with families (e.g.,

Cleveland Elementary School, Tampa, FL).

Teach Social-Emotional &

Problem Solving Skills

Teach, model, practice, coach, reinforce, generalize

PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies)

Second step

Stop and think

“Stop and teach” (George Bailey)

Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP)

Culturally competent approaches (e.g., Gwen

Cartledge)

See

Safe & Sound

See PATHS; Second Step; I Can Problem Solve etc.

( Appendix A )

Provide Positive Behavioral Supports

High behavioral standards and strong supports for students and adults to realize these standards;

Workable school and classroom behavior plans;

Positive behavioral strategies;

Supporting appropriate behaviors (e.g.,

Helping students stay on task); and

Teaching and modeling skills.

Sugai & Horner, 2000

Provide Engaging and

Appropriate Instruction

High academic standards and strong supports for students and adults to realize these standards;

Strong curricula approaches;

Strong teaching approaches (e.g., Class-Wide Peer

Tutoring);

Engaging curricula and teaching;

Culturally competent curricula and teaching;

Individualization; and

Use of multiple modalities (individual, group, experiential, technology, etc.).

Early Intervention

Selective

Indicated

Selective

interventions for individuals who is a member of a subgroup of the population whose risk of illness or poor outcomes is above average (e.g., single teenage mothers)

Indicated

interventions for individuals who exhibit a risk factor or condition that identifies them, individually, as being at high risk for the development of illness or poor outcomes

Early Intervention Models &

Examples

High Scope Preschool Curriculum

Regional Intervention Program (RIP)

First Step to Success

Primary Mental Health Project

Functional Assessment (See

Student Problem Behaviors

)

Addressing

Effective Mentoring

STEP

PACT (Positive Adolescent Choices Training)

I mpact of Combined Selective Intervention

Social Development Research Group

(Public Schools in Seattle High Crime Areas)

Intervention

– Teacher training (5 days in service grades 1-6)

– Developmentally Appropriate Parent education (grades 1-3, 5-6)

– Social competence training for children (grades 1, 6)

Impact at age 18 (compared to nonrandomized controls)

– Less

• anti social behavior (Violence/Delinquency: 48%: 60%)

Heavy Drinking: 15%: 26%

School Misbehavior (p=.02)

– More

Commitment to school (p=.03)

Attachment to school (p=.006)

Academic Achievement (p= .01) Hawkins,1999

Intensive Intervention and

Treatment

•Individualized

•Address multiple risk factors & cross multiple domains

•Linguistically & culturally competent

•Child & family driven

•Intensive & sustained.

Intensive Interventions

Wraparound

MST

Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster

Care

Appropriate Medication Management.

MST

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

Arrests, SC,

1 year

Re-arrest,

MO, 5 year

Criteria for Selecting

Interventions

The program must have documented effectiveness and be based on sound theory

The program can be easily integrated with existing school practices.

The program must have data that demonstrates effectiveness or ineffectiveness with particular student groups.

Data must indicate that the program has a positive impact on student achievement.

Program developers/sponsors must demonstrate that subscribing schools receive sufficient technical assistance.

Program components must focus on promoting positive solutions to behavioral and emotional problems.

Intervention

Selection Calculus

X Intervention works with

Y Students

In Z context

When you do:

 a

 b c

Moving From Research to Practice:

Institutionalizing Changes in

Structure, Practice, Culture

Sustaining System-,

Community-, State-wide

Becoming Core &

Going to Scale

Sustainability

Effectiveness

Efficacy

14 Ingredients of School Improvement (

Safe,

Successful, & Supportive Schools: Step by

Step

)

Address the needs of your school and community

Be strategic and comprehensive

Be systemic

Don’t do it alone

Understand and manage change

Build a learning community

14 Ingredients of School

Improvement

Involve the entire community

Value and address diversity

Assess and address your strengths and challenges

Take time to choose evidence-based programs and practices

14 Ingredients of School

Improvement

Build capacity

Employ Data

Evaluate outcomes

Focus on the long haul .

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