The Early Middle Ages The Norman Conquest William I. Battle of Hastings Domesday Book England under the Norman and Plantagenet Kings Economic Prosperity and Baronial Revolt Reforms and English Parliament 14th century The Lancastrian and Yorkist Kings The War of Roses The Norman Conquest About 1064, the powerful English noble, Harold, earl of Wessex, was shipwrecked on the Norman coast and taken prisoner by William. He secured his release by swearing to support William’s claim to the English throne. When King Edward died, however, the royal council elected Harold king. William secured the sanction of Pope Alexander II for a Norman invasion of England. The duke and his army landed at Pevensey on September 28, 1066. On October 14, the Normans defeated the English forces at the celebrated Battle of Hastings, in which Harold was slain. William then proceeded to London, crushing the resistance he encountered on the way. On Christmas Day he was crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey. The English did not accept foreign rule without a struggle. William met the opposition, which was particularly violent in the north and west, with strong measures; he was responsible for the devastation of great areas of the country, particularly in Yorkshire, where Danish forces had arrived to aid the Saxon rebels. By 1070 the Norman conquest of England was complete. William invaded Scotland in 1072 and forced the Scottish king Malcolm III MacDuncan to pay him homage. During the succeeding years the Conqueror put down series of uprisings in Normandy led by his eldest son Robert, who later became Robert II, duke of Normandy. •Normans, Viking invaders from Scandinavia who began to settle in Normandy in northern France before the middle of the 9th century AD. The Normans then went on to conquer England, southern Italy, and Sicily. . •During the Middle Ages, the Belgian heavy draft horse was known as the Flanders Great Horse and the Great War Horse. William the Conqueror, who invaded England in 1066, led his army mounted on a Belgian heavy draft horse. William and his horse each wore about 440 kg of armour. . Born in Falaise, France, William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy, and Arletta, a tanner’s daughter, and is therefore sometimes called William the Bastard. Upon the death of his father, the Norman nobles, honouring their promise to Robert, accepted William as his successor. •Rebellion against the young duke broke out almost immediately, however, and his position did not become secure until 1047 when, with the aid of Henry I, king of France, he won a decisive victory over a rebel force near Caen. During a visit in 1051 to his childless cousin, Edward the Confessor, king of England, William is said to have obtained Edward’s agreement that he should succeed to the English throne. In 1053, defying a papal ban, William married Matilda of Flanders, daughter of Baldwin V, count of Flanders and a descendant of King Alfred the Great, thereby strengthening his claim to the crown of England. •Henry I, fearing the strong bond between Normandy (Normandie) and Flanders resulting from the marriage, attempted in 1054 and again in 1058 to crush the powerful duke, but on both occasions William defeated the French king’s forces. William I The Conqueror (1027-1087), first Norman king of England (10661087). The year 1066 was a turning point in English history. William I, the Conqueror, and his sons gave England vigorous new leadership. Norman feudalism became the basis for redistributing the land among the conquerors, giving England a new French aristocracy and a new social and political structure. England turned away from Scandinavia toward France, an orientation that was to last for 400 years. William was a hard ruler, punishing England, especially the north, when it disputed his authority. His power and efficiency can be seen in the Domesday Survey, a census for tax purposes, and in the Salisbury Oath of allegiance, which he demanded of all tenants. He appointed Lanfranc, an Italian clergyman, as archbishop of Canterbury. He also promoted church reform, especially by the creation of separate church courts, but retained royal control. When William died in 1087, he gave England to his second son, William II (Rufus), and Normandy to his eldest son, Robert. Henry, his third son, in due time got both—England in 1100, when William II died in a hunting accident, and Normandy in 1106 by conquest. Henry I used his feudal court and household to organize the government. The exchequer (the royal treasury) was established at this time. Henry wanted his daughter, Matilda, to succeed him, but in 1135 his nephew, Stephen of Blois, seized the throne. The years from 1135 to 1154 were marked by civil war and strife. The royal government Henry had built fell apart, and the feudal barons asserted their independence. The church, playing one side against the other, extended its authority. Battle of Hastings, was fought on October 14, 1066, between a national army led by Harold II, Saxon king of England, and an invasion force led by William, Duke of Normandy, afterward William I (the Conqueror). Harold’s brother, Tostig, earl of Northumbria, supported William’s claim, and at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on September 25 in Yorkshire, was slain by Harold. The English army of about 7000 soldiers then marched from Yorkshire and occupied a height (later called Senlac Hill) on the Hastings-London highway about 10.5 km northwest of Hastings. The royal force was composed exclusively of infantry, armed with spears, swords, and battle-axes. Meanwhile, William’s seaborne forces, which included infantry armed with crossbows and contingents of heavily armed cavalry, landed on the English coast near Hastings on September 28, 1066. The initial Norman attack, launched in the morning of October 14, failed.The English axmen turned back a Norman cavalry charge and several units of the English army broke ranks, contrary to Harold's orders, and followed the retreating Normans. Other Norman troops quickly surrounded and annihilated these units. Taking advantage of the lack of discipline among the English soldiers, William ordered a retreat. Severely weakened by these reverses and demoralized by the mortal wounding of Harold by an arrow, the English were forced to abandon their strategic position on the crest of Senlac Hill. Only small remnants of the defending army survived the subsequent onslaughts of the Norman cavalry. William's victory at Hastings paved the way for Norman subjugation of all England. Domesday Book, sometimes called just Domesday, written record of a statistical survey of England ordered by William the Conqueror. The survey, made in 1086, was an attempt to register the landed wealth of the country in a systematic fashion, to determine the revenues due to the king. The previous system of taxation was of ancient origin and had become obsolete. By listing all feudal estates, both lay and ecclesiastical, the Domesday Book enabled William to strengthen his authority by exacting oaths of allegiance from all tenants on the land, as well as from the nobles and churchmen on whose land the tenants lived. The survey was executed by groups of officers called legati, who visited each county and conducted a public inquiry. The set of questions that these officers asked of the town and county representatives constituted the Inquisitio Eliensis; the answers supplied the information from which the Domesday Book was compiled. Domesday is a corruption of Doomsday (the day of the final judgment); the work was so named because its judgments in terms of levies and assessments were irrevocable. England Under the Norman and Plantagenet Kings. 1.Henry II Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, succeeded, as Henry II, in 1154. Henry II and his sons, Richard and John, expanded royal authority. Henry ended the anarchy of Stephen's reign, banishing mercenaries and destroying private castles. He strengthened the government created by Henry I. Most important, he developed the common law, administered by royal courts and applicable to all of England. Henry attempted to reduce the jurisdiction of church courts, especially over clergy accused of crimes, but was opposed by Saint Thomas à Becket, his former chancellor, whom he had made archbishop of Canterbury. His anger at Becket's inflexibility led ultimately to Becket's martyrdom in 1170. Henry's empire included more than half of France and lordship over Ireland and Scotland. His skill at governing, however, did not include the ability to placate his sons, who rebelled against him several times, backed by the kings of France and by their mother, Eleanor of born 1133, Le Mans, Main, died July 6, 1189, near Tours By name Henry Of Anjou, Henry Plantagenet, Henry Fitzempress, or Henry Curtmantle (Short Mantle) duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151), duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his AngloFrench domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with members of his family (his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and such sons as Richard the LionHeart (1157-1199) and John Lackland) ultimately brought about his defeat. This map shows the extent of the English and French possessions of king Henry II. Significant amounts of modern France were under the control of (or at least claimed by) Henry. France itself was very limited in size. Disputes over land led to frequent warfare, something Pope Gregory VIII hoped to stop by calling the Third Crusade. These disputes also kept Richard the Lionheart and Philip Augustus of France from uniting completely when they went on the Crusade. 2.Richard and John Richard I, the Lion-Hearted, was in England only briefly. He was busy fighting in the Crusades and later for the land lost in France during his absence, especially while he was a captive in Germany. Even during Richard's absence, however, the government built by Henry II continued to function, collecting taxes to support his wars and to pay his ransom. John lost Normandy in 1204, and in 1213, after a long fight with Pope Innocent III over the naming of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury, John capitulated and acknowledged England to be a papal fief. All this caused a quarrel with his barons over his general leadership and their refusal to follow him into war in Normandy. The barons, led by Langton, forced John in 1215 to accept the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, by which he admitted his errors and promised to respect English law and feudal custom. He died the next year, still at war with the barons. Although the loss of Normandy seemed a disgrace at the time, it left England free to develop its unique institutions without outside interference. Think no more of it, John; you are only a child who has had evil counsellors. Richard I (1157 - 1199) Said at his reconciliation, at Lisieux in May 1194, with his brother John, who had attempted to overthrow him while he was held prisoner in Germany (1193-1194). the Magna Carta 3.Economic Prosperity and Baronial Revolt When John died in 1216, the barons accepted his nine-yearold son as King Henry III. They assumed control of the government and confirmed the Magna Carta in 1225, as did Henry when he came of age two years later. Thus began the tradition of royal confirmation of the Magna Carta and the idea that it was the fundamental statement of English law and of limited government. England prospered in the 12th and 13th centuries. Land under cultivation increased; sheep raising and the sale of wool became extremely important. London and other towns became vital centres of trade and wealth, and by royal charters they acquired the right to local self-government. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge were established. The population probably doubled from about 1.5 million to more than 3 million. Oxford University Henry III Cambridge University The monasteries, especially those of the Cistercians, led the rural expansion and became wealthy in the process. More than a dozen cathedrals were built, as well as scores of abbeys and parish churches, all attesting to the wealth of England and of its church. In the 1220s the friars, Franciscans and Dominicans, arrived in England, improving the quality of preaching and becoming the leading scholars in the universities. Henry III was not an able king, however. He quarrelled with the barons, who thought that they, rather than his favourites, should have the major offices. In 1258 the Provisions of Oxford attempted to give control of the government to a committee of barons. Civil war broke out in 1264, and the baronial leader Simon de Montfort came briefly to power. Montfort, however, was killed in the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and power returned to Henry and his able son, Edward. 4.Reforms and the English Parliament Edward I restored royal control and made several reforms: He limited the barons' right to hold their own courts of law; he gave English common law and most important, he used and developed Parliament, which was essentially the king's feudal council with a new name and an enlarged membership. The Model Parliament of 1295, following Montfort's pattern of 1265, consisted of great barons, bishops, abbots, and representatives of counties and towns. In 1297, to get money for his wars, Edward accepted the Confirmation of Charters, agreeing that taxes must be agreed by the Parliament. In the following century, Parliament divided into two houses, Lords and Commons, and made good its claim to control taxation and to participate in the making of statutes. Sir WilliamWallace: “It’s all for nothing if you don’t have freedom.” Edward I, called Longshanks, king of England (1272-1307), of the house of Plantagenet THE WELSH / ENGLISH LONGBOW Edward conquered northwest Wales, ending the rule of its native princes. He built stone castles, adopted the Welsh longbow as an English weapon, and named his oldest son the Prince of Wales. He intervened in Scottish affairs, even claiming the Scottish throne. Having fought the Scots often but with little effect, Edward died in 1307 without having subdued the northern kingdom. On Edward´s grave was written:“Edward, the Hammer of the Scots“ He intended to hammer them into the ground, but in fact he had hammered them into a nation. His son, Edward II, gave up the campaign. In 1314, at the Battle of Bannockburn, King Robert Bruce made good Scotland's claim to independence. One cost of the war was the longlasting hostility of Scotland, backed by its alliance with France. Edward II was a weak king, partly influenced by favourites and partly dominated by the ordinances of 1311 that gave the barons the ruling power. Although he freed himself of baronial rule in 1322, he was forced to abdicate in 1327. Edward II (1284 - 1327) Robert I, the Bruce (12741329) is surely the greatest of all the great Scottish heroes The 14th century His son, Edward III, got on well with the barons by keeping them busy in France, where England continued to hold extensive territory. In 1337 he initiated the Hundred Years' War to prove his claim to the French throne. The English had some initial success at Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), where they used the English longbow with deadly effect against the French. By 1396, however, England had lost all its previous gains. The expense of the war repeatedly forced Edward to go to Parliament for taxes, enabling it to bargain for concessions and to establish its rights and privileges. Battle of Crécy between the English and French in the Hundred Years' War. From a 15th-century illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles Edward was born on 13 November 1312, possibly at Windsor, the son of Edward II and Isabella of France. Edward himself became king in 1327 after his father was deposed by his mother and her lover, Roger Mortimer. A year later Edward married Philippa of Hainault - they were to have 13 children. Isabella and Roger ruled in Edward's name until 1330, when he executed Mortimer and banished his mother. Edward's primary focus was now war with France. Ongoing territorial disputes were intensified in 1340 when Edward assumed the title of king of France, starting a war that would last intermittently for over a century. In July 1346, Edward landed in Normandy, accompanied by his son Edward, the Black Prince. His decisive victory at Crécy in August scattered the French army. Edward then captured Calais, establishing it as a base for future campaigns. In 1348, he created the Order of the Garter. War restarted in 1355. The following year, the Black Prince won a significant victory at Poitiers, capturing the French king, John II. The resulting Treaty of Bretigny in 1360 marked the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War and the high point of English influence in France. Edward renounced his claim to the French crown in return for the whole of Aquitaine. In 1369, the French declared war again. Edward left the fighting to his sons. They enjoyed little success and the English lost much of the territory they had gained in 1360. After the death of his queen, Philippa, in 1369, Edward fell under the influence of Alice Perrers, his mistress, who was regarded as corrupt and grasping. Against a backdrop of military failure in France and outbreaks of the plague, the 'Good Parliament' of 1376 was summoned. Perrers and other members of the court were severely criticised and heavy taxation attacked. New councillors were imposed on the king. The death of the Black Prince, Edward's heir, interrupted the crisis and the king's younger son, John of Gaunt, who had ruled the country during Edward's frequent absence in France, later reversed the Good Parliament's reforming efforts. Edward died on 21 June 1377, leaving his young grandson Richard Hundred Years' War 1337-1453 Edward the Black Prince (1330 - 1376) Although Edward never became king - he died before his father, Edward III - he is remembered as a great medieval military hero, with notable victories against the French in the Hundred Years War. During his lifetime he was known as Edward of Woodstock; the title of Black Prince developed after his death and may refer to black armour that he wore. The Black Death struck England in 1349, reducing the population by as much as a third. The Peasants' Revolt The Peasants' Revolt in 1381 reflected the continuing unrest Tyler's Rebellion There were outbreaks of violence among the peasantry throughout England. In London, Tyler, Ball and Straw targeted the two people most responsible for the poll tax: Archbishop Sudbury, the chancellor; and Sir Robert Hailes, the treasurer. These two they found hiding in the Tower of London and that is where they were beheaded. But the rebels, still in the grip of the myth of the "divine right" of kings, believed Richard a natural ally of the poor. It was a time of economic and social change—manorial service was being commuted to cash payments, and serfdom was on the way to its end in the following century. The move of the popes from Rome to Avignon in France (1309-1376) and the Great Schism (1378-1417), in which rival popes opposed one another, caused a loss of English respect for the papacy. John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor, criticized corruption in the church and had ideas similar to those of the later Protestant reformers. In 1382 he was removed by an ecclesiastical court to the country parish at Lutterworth, and his ideas were declared heretical. His followers, the Lollards, were persecuted but not stamped out Richard II, the grandson of Edward III, began his reign when he was ten years old, with rival factions fighting for control of his government. As an adult he governed moderately until 1397, when he became involved in a struggle with the leading nobles. In 1399 his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, forced him to abdicate and became king in his place as Henry IV. Richard II January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399 Richard II watches Wat Tyler's death and addresses the peasants in the background The Lancastrian and Yorkist Kings Since 1216 the royal succession had always gone to the king's eldest son. By this rule, Henry IV, the son of John of Gaunt, Edward III's fourth son, had no claim to the throne. The rightful heir was Edmund, earl of March, who was descended from Edward's third son. Because of the irregularity, Henry and his Lancastrian successors were not secure in their claim to the throne. This weakness was manifest in his concessions to Parliament and to the church as well as in his wars with powerful and rebellious families in Wales and the north. Henry V, who succeeded his father, had one ambition: to duplicate Edward III's military exploits in France. He won a brilliant victory at Agincourt in 1415 and had his success confirmed in the Treaty of Troyes (1420). He married the daughter of the mad French king, Charles VI, assumed control of the French government, although not the entire country, and could expect a son of this marriage to inherit both kingdoms. Henry IV (of England) (1367-1413) During his reign Henry IV persecuted the religious sect known as the Lollards. Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) He was the most influential ruler in western Europe at the time of his death in Vincennes, France, August 31, 1422 In 1422 both Henry and Charles VI died, bringing the nine-month-old Henry VI to the throne of both countries. For a time, Henry's able uncles, John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, and Humphrey of Gloucester held things together, the former in France, the latter in England. In 1429, however, Joan of Arc appeared, inspiring French resistance to English rule. Although Joan was captured and burned as a heretic in 1431, the English position in France became increasingly unstable. Henry VI (of England) (1421-1471) He had suffered attacks of insanity all his life and was often completely incapacitated. Henry, who founded Eton College and King's College, University of Cambridge, was venerated by many as a saint because of his piety Joan of Arc, (c. 1412 – May 30, 1431) was a 15th century national heroine of France. She was tried and executed for heresy when she was only 19 years old. The judgment was broken by the Pope and she was declared innocent and a martyr 24 years later. She was beatified in 1909 and canonized as a saint in 1920. The Wars of the Roses Henry VI was not capable of ruling; during his reign, control of the kingdom passed from one noble faction to another. The war in France only emphasized Henry's inability at home. The loss of Normandy in 1450 and the corruption of the government, the loss of everything in France, except Calais, in 1453, was a prelude to the dynastic conflict called the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485). The wars were fought between two branches of the royal family, the Lancastrians, who in the person of Henry VI possessed the throne but lacked the ability to rule, and the Yorkists, led by Richard, Duke of York, who had a valid claim to the throne and greater ability. The issue was complicated in 1453, when the king's wife, Margaret of Anjou, gave birth to a son, destroying Richard's status as heir apparent. Lancashire rose Yorkshire rose The turning point in the wars came in 1460. That year Richard was killed in battle, and his cause was taken up by his son, Edward. Assisted by Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, he defeated the Lancastrians in 1461, took Henry captive, and so overawed Parliament that it acclaimed him king as Edward IV. Henry, however, escaped, and Edward's subsequent marriage (1464) to Elizabeth Woodville and his alliance with Burgundy alienated Warwick, who then joined forces with Margaret of Anjou to depose Edward and restore Henry to the throne (1470). Edward returned the following year, supported by his brother-in-law, Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and decisively defeated the Lancastrians. Thereafter, he was secure on the throne and restored some degree of sound government. When Edward died in 1483, the throne went to his 12-year-old son, Edward V, but it was usurped three months later by the boy's uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who became king as Richard III. Two years later, Henry Tudor, asserting a weak Lancastrian claim, defeated Richard at Bosworth and became Henry VII. Richard III (1452-1485), king of England (1483-1485) Although Richard, the last king of the house of York, did usurp the throne, little doubt exists that his unscrupulousness has been overemphasized by his enemies and by Tudor historians seeking to strengthen the Lancastrian position. His immorality is strongly exaggerated in Shakespeare's play Richard III. King Richard's Field Richard made a last attempt to win victory by directly attacking Henry with is personal guard, and almost succeeded, having cut down Henry's standard bearer. Richard's gamble failed, and he was struck down. The battle ended because his followers had no other definite leader. Richard was the last king of England to die on the battlefield. His death effectively ended the Wars of the Roses, and Henry VII started a new dynasty, the Tudors.