BIO 1C Lab Exam 2 study guide Bryophytes, seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms Use this study guide, and also go through your labs! The structures etc. and things to know are all outlined in each lab. Know life cycles of moss, fern, and pine really well and how to ID stages and whether the stage is n, 2n, and where meiosis and mitosis occur. Know how to recognize stages in the other phyla we studied (see below) Recognize the plants we worked with and if the part you are looking at is n or 2n (determine sporophyte from gametophyte) Place them into their correct phylum (eg) Bryophytes: Marchantia is a liverwort – hepatophyta, Moss is bryophyta , hornwort is anthocerophyta, General for nonvascular plants: recognize gametophytes, sporophytes, sporangia, antheridia, archegonia, venter, egg, etc. where does meiosis occur? Recognize the gametangia if evident (the structures that give rise to the antheridia and archegonia) – on Marchantia they were visible Gemmae cups (marchantia liverwort) and their function Seedless vascular: know how to ID Lycophytes: selaginella (spike moss), lycopodium (club moss). Isoetes (quillworts). Pterophytes: whisk ferns (psilotum), ferns, equisetum (horsetails - sphenophyta) Know how to determine heterosporous and homosporous (eg. Selaginella is heterosporous and lycopodium is homosporous) eg. by looking at the sporangia and the strobilus Ferns: know the life cycle and recognize indusia, sori, sporangia, gametophyte, antheridia, archegonia. Know the anatomy of a fern gametophyte, rhizomes vrs. rhizoids. Conifers: Know the life cycle, ID: Know ploidy of each structure o Male (staminate cone/microstrobili), microsporophylls, microsporangia (pollen sacs), microspores (pollen grains) –the immature male gametiphyte. It consists of 4 cells: 2 prothallial cells, a tube cell and a generative cell (that will give rise to 2 sperm cells) o Female (ovulate cones – megastrobili), megasporophylls, megasporangium, ovule, archegonium, egg. o ID the integuments, micropyle (2n) o Seed: embryo (2n), nutritive tissue (n) Know what monoecious and dioecious mean Know how to identify: Coniferophyta, Ginkophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta (ephedra, welwitchia, gnetum – although we focused on the first two really), and some major characteristics What are a couple of things that make the Gnetales so interesting? Know how to differentiate a staminate (male) from an ovulate (female) cone in each of the gymnosperm plants we looked at What kind of water/nutrient conducting cells do conifers have? (tracheids!) What water conducting cells show up in the Gnetales that are not in the conifers?