Unit 4 – Notes #2 – Non-Vascular Terrestrial Plants Kingdom: Plantae Phyla: Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, and Anthocerotophyta Members: Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts Typical Moss (Bryophyta) Hornworts (Hepatophyta) Liverworts (Anthocerophyta) Characteristics of Bryophytes Pigments: 1) Chlorophyll a 2) Chlorophyll b -both are green pigments. Habitat: 1) Can only thrive in wet areas (swamps, marshes, near streams) 2) Thrive in climates that receive year-round precipitation; tropical and temperate rainforests. A wet environment is crucial for bryophyte survival: - As they lack a proper water transport system (non-vascular). - No protective surface (waxy cuticle) to guard against water loss due to evaporation. - Have flagellated sperm cells that must swim through water to fertilize eggs. Therefore; No water = No reproduction. Morphology: (Form) - Most look like miniature evergreen trees, but only a few centimeters tall. Moss Structure: - Each moss plant has a thin upright shoot that looks like a stem with tiny leaves; these are not true leaves or stems because they lack proper transport tubules. - From the base of the shoot grows a number of thin branches called rhizoids that penetrate into the ground and act like roots to securely anchor the plant. (they do not help in water transport) - Water passes from cell to cell through osmosis. This water transport system is fine if the organism is small. This is why bryophytes never grow tall. Life Cycle: - Life cycle involves the alternation between a haploid organism that gives rise to a diploid organism in the second generation, which gives rise to a third generation that is haploid and so on and so on…. - Have female and male gametophyte (1N) stage, this gametophyte stage produces haploid gametes (1N) from haploid plants. These gametes fuse to form a diploid (2N) zygote which gives rise to diploid sporophyte (2N) structures including a sporangium. Meiosis takes place in the sporangium to produce haploid (1N) spores to germinate into new gametophyte generation. Moss Life Cycle: STUDY IT !